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THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF VICTORIA. (CJNTRIBUTED). Mr Fawkner landed at Port Phillip with one of his horses, leaving two on board. having previously filled up a code of directions for the guidance of Captain Lancy, as his agent in charge of his ser vants and goods, with full directions how to proceed with the survey, and on no account to settle oexcept upon a perma nent running stream of good water. The party searched the whole range of Wes tern Port, and then commenced on the eastern side of Port Phillip until they found the Yarra, where they fixed on what was then known as Batman's Hill, marking out ten acres for each of the party. Having pitched their tents they proceeded to form a garden and plant out a large number of fruit trees, etc., shipped by Mr Fawkner, and within one week from the landing, August. 25th, 1835, a garden was formed, trees planted, seeds sown, and five acres of ground ploughed, harrowed, and sown down with wheat. Subsequently, Mr Fawkner removed his establishment, and fixed his home at the rear of the site of the present -custom house, where he opened the first public house, in order to be near the fresh water, and near the place where he first moored his vessel, the Enterprise. Shortly after, Messrs Lang, .Marr, Evans, and W. Jackson had settled as directed on the Yarra Mr J. H. Wedge came to them from (Batman's station at Indented Head. The natives having re ported the arrival of thelEnterprise, he went back to the station, and immediately accompanied by Henry Batman, with men and stores, returned to the new settlement, and ordered Fawkner's party off what he said was his liad. The Messrs Lancy and Co. would not acknow ledge his right to interfere, and treated the threat with contempt. ' The first cattle and sheep were landed from the ship Norval, on November 10th, 1835, consisting of 50 pure Hereford cows, be longing to Dr Thompson, and 500 sheep, the property of Mr Connolly, of Belfast. Messrs Cowie, Stead, Steiglitz, Esteort, and Ferguson came by this trip. About March, 1836, Major Mitchell proceeded on his exploration of the in terior of the country. passing from Syd. ney out to Portland Bay. He named the interior Australia Felix. When Mr Fawk nor and his family arrived to join his agent, Captain Lancy and party, at Port Phillip, thirty two years after his first arrival, he found the herbage so rich, and the coantry so attractive, that he deter mined to make it his home. Birds aboun ded on the waters, there being ducks, teal, geese, swans, in tens of thousands. The new colonists lived on board the En terprise for a month whilst a wooden house- was being erected with inaterial brought over from Launceston. Batman's people lived in huts and tents. In November, Mr John Batman came over from Launceston to examine his vast squattage, and repeated his order through his brother Henry to Mr Fawkner to remove off his land, informing him that he laid claim to all the lands on the north side of the Yarra. Upon refusal he sent one of the blacks with a note to inform Mr Fawkner that if he did not leave at once he would drive him off by force of arms. This threat was treated very lightly. Whilst Fawkner was busy building his house Buckley, who had left living with the natives and joined Bat man's party at Indented Head, collected a number of the native tribes. Barrabool, Goulburn, and Western Port blacks laid a plan to murder all the white people. One of the Melbourne blacks who had been kindly treated by Fawkner's party came and gave timely warning to Mr Fawkner, and recourse was had to Buckley to learn the real nature of this plot, and it was found that the natives had all arrived and were painted for war. Fawkner and Batman in this emergency entered into a Itreaty with the foe on the condition that they should all quit the township and cross to the south side of the Yarra Yarra. The boats of the colonists put them over the river, the rest of the men standing as guards with loaded firearms. The Enterprise was the first vessel larger than a whaleboat that ever reached the river basin at Melbourne, and it took the crew and passengers some days to gather and fix tie-tree stakes as water or river marks by which to keep clear of the shoals. Very few settlers and not much stock came over to Port Phillip during the remainder of the year 1835. Dr. Thomson, afterwards Mayor of Geelong, arrived with his family and acted as arbi tratorby general consent. His tent was in fact the first police office in Melbourne. On June 1st, 1838, a council of the people was held to frame regulations for their guidance, and the proposal of Mes srs Gillibrand and Swanston to the Port Phillipians to submit their property and personal effects to the control of members of the Batman co-partnership, was re jected on the motion of Mr Fawkaer. Dr. Thompson contemplating a removal to Geelong MIr James Simpson wasappointed general arbitrator, and was to call in two assistants if he thought proper. Mr Stewart, a Sydney magistrate, was pre sent at this time, and was authorised to report upon the conduct of the colonists. Advantage was taken of his presence and a petition forwarded through him to Governor Bourke asking for the appoint ment of magistrates and police to main lain order, pointing out that the cost could be defrayed by levying duties on imported goods. Sett!ers and stob-k came over as soon as it became known that Governor Sir Richard Bourke had disallowed the wicked scheme of wrestling the lands from the simple natives for a few looking glasses. Batman and the Indented Head people came over in June.of. that year to lire at Melbourne in peaceful bliss Coustant employment in brieging over sheep was fouud for the Adelaide schoo ner, the Henry brig, The Champion, and the Enterprise, and huts rose on all parts of the then township. The sheep atnd cattle were generally landed at Gellibrand Point, and driven to their destination. Early in 1835, Mr Franks, one of the first immigrants, and his shspherd were killed by some of the Goulburn tribe of blacks. His station was near Cotterill's Mount, called the Sugarloaf, near the river Exe, now Werribee. 'IThey were both killed at one moment by the blacks, who while pretending friendship, smote them down by driving their tomahawks into the backs of their heads. A party was soon sent out after them, led by tour of the Mel bourne tribe, who rec.vered part of the property stolen, and took vengeance on the murderers. The Flagstaff 1iill was selected for a butial ground. The child of a man of the name of Goodman was the first who was buried by the Europeans of Melbourne. Mr Franks and his man were inlterred there,. the funeral being attended by all the residents. In Septem ber, 1S36, Sir Richard lourke, Governor of iN.S.W. sent Captain Lonsdale. as police iuIgi~rstrat. witii a party of soldiers and courictrs, and with them Messrs Webb, customs otticer, .lr Catig. coninzisariat )'Arcy, IRussel and Darke, surveyors. The settlement was thus placed under legal British rule. The extraordinary progress of the Settlemeut was evidenced in 1837, when it was estimated that there was a popula. tion of 50), with 140,000 sheep, 2.500 cattle, and 150 horses. Sir Richard Bourke resolved on a tour of inspection, and in April of that year entered the hay on board the Ratt!esuake, commanled by Captain Hobson, whose names, as a mark of honor, was given to the Bay. His Ex cellency also gave the name Williamstown to the township at Habson's Bay in honor of the reigning sovereign. Melbourne, the proposed metropolis of the district, was named by him after Lord Melbourne and Geelong, the proposed tonship at the head of Corio Eay. The settlers waited on His Excellency and every possible mark oh respect was

exhibited. Arrangements were made to put up portions of the surveyed allot ments to public sale, and after having seen something of the interior the Go vernor returned to Sydney. The first land sale was hell on June 1st, 1837, and realised from £18 to £78 per allotment. In this year the settlers had to mourn the loss of Mr J. T. Geilibrand, an able lawyer, who had been amongst the most energetic of those that promoted the colonisation of Port Phillip. In company with another lawyer named Hesse, and under the guidance of a shepherd, they started from Geelong for the interior of the Western district. The party lost their way. and these two gentlemen, be coming separated from their guide, wan dered in the bush, and were never more seen. There are two mounts on the road to Cressey called by their names, where their remains were found. The mounts are fitting monuments to their memory. From the earliest period Port Phillip became noted for the lively and bustling spirit that characterised the colonists. This tone of enteprisa and go ahead spirit soon made it apparent to the Sydney authorities that a mere police establish ment was insufficient to the requirements of the province, and measures were taken to establish a local administration. Mr C. J. Latrobe was gazetted on 30th July, 1889, as Superintendent Governor, and on 30th September he initiated by his own arrival in Port Phillip the political history of the colony, The first movement of importance was a public meeting held on 30th December, 1840, to take measures for the separation of Port Phillip from the government of New South Wales, and this was followed by a secoud meeting on March 1st, 1841.

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State Library of Victoria
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