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THE AMERICAN INDIAN QUES TION.

Whether or not the worst fears will be realized, and the American Government consider it necessary to declare a war of extermination against the Indians in the

United istates, is a question still involved in uncertainty. Such, a ' development of the racial difficulty now pending in the great western Republic is no doubt contingent npon anything like real combination among the different tribes of red men. The combination, once called into being in opposition to the United States, would without doubt seal the fate of the Indians. There is even the shadow of an excuse for believing that the American Government would not be

sorry to get rid for ever of a burden that has always hung more or less heavily upon them. The Indian, even when he has not been giving them downright trouble, has apparently always been viewed either as an encumbrance or as an element of perplexity. JBut whatever may be the final development of the out break of Indians in Dakota Territory, it is evident that the active hostilities that began with the massacre of about half a' dozen white settlers have assumed pro portions which give to the whole matter a very grave importance. The intelli gence brought by cable only within the past day or so of a regi ment of 'United States cavalry being surprised, and escaping destruction only by additional troops coming to the rescue, is a significant commentary on the seriousness of the struggle. Tlie fact that the' Indians on the warpath already count thousands adds to the gloomj' character of the outlook. Nor does a. glance at the area of territory within which the Indians ai*e located tend to make the prospect more reassuring. The area includes the States of .Min nesota, Dakota (north and south), Nebraska, Montana, and Wyoming, com prising a latitude that reaches from 40' to 49°. To this immense expanse of country have to be added the States of Colorado and Utah to the south, and again in the south-west Arizona, in latitude 32° to 38°. Scattered about all these States are Indians. Then, of course, there is Indian Territory, a tract of coantry covering an area of 69,000 square miles, to the south of Kansas and west of Missouri, which, the United States Go vernment have set apart specially for Indians. 'Within this territory there are Creeks, Cherokees, Cheyennes, Chicka saws, and Choctaws to the number of about 60,000. Here also are remnants of smaller tribes. The region is well guarded round about by United States troops, the Indians living under the direction of the American Government, and follow ing pastoral or agricultural pursuits as a means of livelihood. But the red man has never taken kindly to the ways of civilization. To borrow an expression from one of Penimore Cooper's celebrated characters, his ' gifts' tend in a different direction. Waves of agitating influence pass strangely and unaccountably every now and again from one territory to another, until Dakota and Arizona, Arizona and Indian Territory, seem over spread with, seething excitement. Gene ral Mizner, who commands at one of the principal frontier forts, estimates that if there is a general rising of Indians 100,000 men and a prolonged campaign will be required, to cany out the work of extermination. So far it would seem that it is the Sioux alone who have been giving trouble. This strong and warlike tribe now numbers about 30,000 persons. For some time past they have been settled on a large reservation in Dakota, close to the Upper Missouri River, divided into five agencies, viz., the Pine Ridge, Sisseton, Rosebud, Yankton, and Standing Rock. Although there has been great foreboding on the point no trustworthy testimony is to hand of other tribes being in active concert with the Sioux. The presence of a restlessness,

regarded as indicative m danger, nas been recognised'. But apart from that fact it is impossible to say how, or to what extent, other tribes are in sympathy with the present outbreak. Entertainment of a feeling of unjust treatment by the United States Government, and the in fluence of agitators predicting the advent of a Messiah, who, overthrowing the whites, would restore to the Indians their hunting grounds, would seem to be at the root of the existing trouble. This is not by any means the first time that the Sioux have proved more than ordinarily troublesome to the United States authorities. When the Civil War was raging in 1862 they were decidedly in evidence in Minnesota, carrying death and devastation through the settlements. The year 1875 found the United States troops and the Sioux, under the leader ship of Sitting Bull, engaged in a struo-«le that became memorable. During the progress of the struggle General Ouster, with sixteen officers and 300 men, was completely overpowered in the defile of Little Horn. Sitting Bull and most of his warriors afterwards effected their escape across the border to Canada. Subsequently he returned to United States territory, and since the outbreak of the present hostilities, responsibility for which he has been largely credited with, lie has fallen a victim either to the cavalryman's sabre or to a shot from a firearm. Meanwhile a personage who rejoices in the name of Little Wound is the recognised head of lie tribe. A telegram that we publish tins morning, if it is based upon actual fact, shows that, 110 matter under whose lead they are fighting, the Sioux are a compact mass. The expected con flict at Pine Ridge has begun, and

so iar tne .American troops nave nacl the worst of it. The fact that several thou sand Indian warriors had collected in the neighbourhood, and the fact that the means for massing troops in the locality are extremely limited, unfortunately give the statement a strong appearance of probability. Beyond that it was known that when signs of apparently im pending trouble were first noticed at Pine Ridge the defensive forces of the whites numbered only a few hundreds. The hope, however, had been entertained that the measures taken to increase the fighting strength of the whites by the enrolment of additional scouts and friendly Indians and the send ing of troops to the scene would end in the Indians finding themselves too greatly overmatched to allow themselves to come to blows in that quarter. The best that can be hoped is that the state ment is without foundation. Upon a review of the matter the feeling cannot be suppressed that the United States authorities are not free from blame. In their relations generally with, the In dians they have shown a lamentable want of honour and a decided want of con sideration in dealing with a subject race. They have bargained with them for their lands and have frequently broken their treaties. Provisions and stores that they undertook to 'send them in considera tion of recognised obligations have never reached them. For this failure peculating agents have been

more or less responsible. At the same time it is manifest that for the system that makes these things possible, and permits them, responsibility must be brought directly home to the centre of autho.i y. Were the desire to deal out even- ded justice to the Indians sincere and one cannot help thinking that the poo. f men would have less cause to conip.ain of the treatment they receive. Any one may be conscious of all the -American Indian's faults and failings, and yet feel that he is worthy of more consideration than the United States authorities mete out to him. The rations of the Sioux seem to have been withheld from. them lately because they would not desist from their religious dance. The rations, it if claimed by Little Wound, do not amount to much. Bear ing in mind the fact that winter has set in in America, and that no true Indian warrior will go on the warpath under ordinary circumstances without .111 assur anceoffoodsupplyforhimself andhishor.se, it is pretty evident that the conviction of the coining of the Messiah has gained complete hold of the Sioux mind. Daring the struggle now pending the United States agents have captured an individual who claimed to be a Messiah. The fact does not, however, seem to have discujn certed the Indians, whether they bcli^st*. ' in the jjretensions of this person or not. The matter is nut without psychologic interest, and ib his perhaps in that relation its counterpart in the strange outbreaks that have been witnessed among the Maoris and among the members of African tribes located in the West Indies. This element of the matter illustrates one of the diffi culties in dealing with aboriginals. But after all one can only wish that the mise rable business had never begun, not only because of the horrible characteristics of Indian warfare to which it is sure again to give prominence, but also because it is more than questionable whether a much vaunted western civilization will come out well from the o eal through wliich it will have to pass. The Scotch Railway Strike. — With the collapse of the strike of the Scotch railway men recent telegrams have made us acquainted. What was the precise cause that rendered nugatory the efforts of the men to secure bettertermshas not hitherto been apparent. The strike began about a fortnight since, and at one time it was nearly general through out Scotland, traffic being practi cally paralysed. Telegrams that we publish this morning shed a. by no means fitful light on the subject. It is evident that the. Railway Companies have possessed strength, and have used it. The men demanded the recognition of ten hours as forming a maximum day's work for all grades, and eight, hours as constituting a working day in the shunting yards. Some of them also claimed that overtime should be paid fur at the rate of time and a quarter, and Sunday labour at the rate of time and a half. Their employers offered an uncompromising resistance to these demands. They were able the more effectually to do this because of the help placed at their disposal in the shape of a loan of engine-drivers by one or two Eng lish Companies. Throughout the struggle there has been not even a suggestion of the thought of compromise on the part of the Companies. The inference, especially in the light of the evictions and the con sequent riot at Motherwell, is plain. Prom beginning to end the employers have realized their ability to bring the strikers to a state of submission. But fur the feeling of jealousy that exists in Glasgow against Edinburgh thiv

strike would not have had the tenure of existence tliat it did. Tlie eviction by the Companies of the men who still refused to return to work bears strik ing testimony to the spirit in Avhich the employers have viewed the struggle. All that eviction in the depth of winter meau» to the comparatively poor classes in Scot land only those can realize who have had experience of a Scotch winter. Tlie outlook to those unfortunate peoole must be simply appalling. The occurrence of a riot is therefore perhaps not to be wondered at. The sacking of the shops at Blantyre is also deeply suggestive. Tlie conduct of the rioters cannot of course be justified. Nor on the other hand is it easy to find justification for the extreme measures adopted by the Railway Companies. Whatever motives influenced the Companies they ought to have borne in mind the charac ter of the sufferings that eviction will entail on the men and their families. English Mail Pas-sexce-is.— The foil.) v ing passengers are booked to leave AdehiMo by the P. & O. steamer Britannia, wliich siils to-day: — For London — llev. T. Wa*.l, M.A., and Mrs. Ward, nurse, and four chUdren, Messrs. Rosse and Inplis, Mesdam-H Kosse and Iuglis. For Port Said— Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Horn. For King George's Sound — Mr. F. Atkinson. The Cable Rates Agheemext. — Tin Governments of other colonies having ex pressed a desire to bo furnished with copies ofthc main paragraphs in the propased [new agreement with the Cable Company before authorizing their Agents- General to sign the doc-uuicnt, the Government have sent a message to London asking that the main points should be cabled out before the agrce ncnt is .sitmcd.

Pakkexgeus by the CAimiAau. — Tho E.M.S. Carthage, from England, is expected to arrive at the Semaphore on Thursday morn ing. Among her passengers are the Karl of Jersey (the new Governor of New South Wales) aud suite, Mr. W. R. Knox (the Secre tary of the Broken Hill Proprietary and the Bri tish Broken Hill Companies), who lias been for England in connection with tlie nsue of tho new shares of the Proprietary Company, and 111 theinterestsoftheBritishCornpauy-andalsoMr. J. J. Duncan, until recently a member of tho South Australian Legislature, and Mr. Shaw Stewart, who represents East Renfrewshire in the House of Commons in the Conservative interest. Mr. W. Hind Smith is also a pas senger. Mr. Smith is one of the oldest living Y.M.C.A workers. He is the representative man in the United Kingdom, and has probably done more than any other for the extension of Young Men's Christian Associations in Great) Britain. Mr. Smith, who is next to Mr. George Williams, the founder of Young Men's Christian Associations, is the senior travelling Secretary of the British Association, and a member of the National Council. JJMh. J. Eusie Bhowx.— This gentleman, who was Conservator of Forests in South Aus tralia and resigned the position to take the office of Director-General of Forests in New South Wales, is at present in Adelaide, having arrived by the Broken Hill train on Tuesday. Public Receftiox to our Cricketers. — His Worship the Mayor of Adelaide informs us that he has decided to give a public recep tion on Thursday morning, as was suggested in tiieHeffister on Tuesday, to the South Auitraliaa cricketeM on their return from Melbourne after the splendid victory they gained over the picked team of Victoria. The aoknowledg inent of their services will be given in the Town Hall at 11 o'clock, provided the express is running to time, which has not been tho case of late. In addition to the recognition of the team generally, there is a movement on foot for conferring special honour on George Giffen, who did 60 much towarda bringing about the victory. - Commercial BaxkopS;A.— The question of interest to creditors, other than those who have accented and. are willing to arrange Ott

the terms offered b/ the committee, was placed in the hands of the liquidators on the 17th nit. to obtain an order from the Supreme Court as to future proceedings. The holidays and vacation of the Court have prevented further action. The committee report settle ment on debts amounting to £1S,O33 since December 23, the balance o£ interest being payable on Friday next. Other creditors are arranging settlement, and when satisfactory receive payment. The committee are anxiously waiting the decision of the Court to finally settle all claims. New Rikles for the State Schools. — The Minister of Education has decided not to make any recommendation to Cabinet with regard to the introduction of new rifles for the use of State school children until he has had an opportunity of ascertaining what description of weapon is likely to be most popular in the other colonies. Mr. Bews thinks that it would be mneh better for the various colonies to adopt only one kind of rifle, as the uni formity would be beneficial in more than one respect Moxday Night's Storm. — The high gale and high sea which prevailed on Monday night had the effect of sinking a small cutter belong ing to Messrs. 1L B. Crosby and H. H. Gelt named the Sylphoid. The Genista dragged her moorings, but no damage was done to the other boat*, which stood vrell to their fasten ings. Ax A-:ei- Pioxkee. — We have received another letter from Mr. George Bates, of Hog Bay (Kangaroo Island). He writes : — ' Sir — Many thanks for your kindness to me. I received a donation from the old colonists, I think through yon- Many thanks for the same. 1 take, liberty in asking you if you would sendjx. few waste books to pass a lonely hour— history^ for I am too old for fiction. 'Wishing- you a happy 'Sew Year, I xn, Sir, Sc., ii. Bates.' THE PICTURESQUE ATLAS PUBLISHING COM PANY. — In another column Mr. J. G. Jenkins, M.P., intimates that he has resigned his con nection with this Company, and that Mr. A. J. Scally, of Sydney, will now act as Manager of the Adelaide Branch of the business. Mr. Jenkins informs us that the Picturesque Atlas, which has been several times favourably reviewed in the Register, has had a very exten sive sale, and certainly its publication was an enterprising undertaking on the part of the Company, and the most costly and extensive yet completed in Australia. The book offers unquestioned evidence that Australia can pro duce works of artistic and literary merit equal to any issued in other parts of the world. In connection with the circulation of the book interesting points affecting the liability of sub scribers have been raised in the Law Courts. In the other colonies a few of the subscribers have refused to pay their subscriptions, but we notice that in every case the Court has given its decision in favour of the Company. We   understand it is the intention of the Company to bring the business to a close as speedily as possible, so far as South Australia is con cerned. Demolition of ax Old Chtjbch.— The four ?walls within which the Presbyterians first 'worshipped in Adelaide are being rapidly razed to the ground. Later-day members of the Scotch Church may not know that the first Presbyterian Church in Adelaide stood on & block of land in GrenfeU-street a few yards east of the Register Office. Early residents will remember it as an unpretentious structure capable of holding about fifty worshippers, standing some distance back from, the street It was erected early in the forties for the Rev. JL Haining, who came to the colony as a re presentative of the Church of Scotland. It was about the fourth place of worship built in Adelaide, which even then when the population ?was small {says an old colonist) was a City of Churches. Early in the fifties the larger St. Andrew's Church in Wakefield-street— the smaller edifice was named St. Andrew's too — was built, and very soon afterwards the building in Grenfell-street was merged into a suite of otEces known as Cowra Build ings, which had been erected between it and the street. Now the whole of the Jjuild^'*- on the allotment is being demolished, and pro- j bably ere long the place will he occupy*1 vy structure m in keep5^ ^ ^^ ideas. Thb 1A1B jSJb. James Mcbbay. — The r^lsoUlit of the late Mr. James Murray, whose &-ath has cast quite a gloom over Port Ade laide, took place at the WoodviDe Cemetery on Tuesday afternoon, and was very large and representative. The cortege, which left the deceased's late residence at Alberton shortly after 3, was a very long one. In the mourning coaches were Messrs. Murray (brother), W. D. Murray and A. Murray (Eons), J. W. Channon and Johnson {sonsin law), and Y- Jones, Z. H. Jones, J. S. Jones, and J. C. Haddy, who had been connected with the late gentleman for a great number of years. Around the grave were gathered gentlemen in almost every grade of life, including- many of the deacons and members cf the Port Congregational Church (with -which body Mr. Murray was connected), the Mayor of Port Adelaide (Mr. C. Tucker), and Councillors Barge, Purvis, Blair, and Widdop, Captain Bickers, Inspector Doyle, Messrs. K. 'W. O. KesSeJ, J. Cleave. H. W. Thompson, W. Crooks, G. Ellis, J. E. Dempster, T. Caterer, H. Ernes, John Sandford, E. Scrym goor, Kamlyn, W. Russell, H. Ranford, G. P. Hodge, J. Hannay, G. W. Smith, J. Caire, and a number of those with whom the deceased had feeen connected in business. The Rev. «T. C. Kifby conducted the service at the grave. During the day the shutters of the principal business places of the Port were raised, and ?flags half-masted on a number of vessels in har bour. Mr. G. L. Hall.— With regard to the di- sappearance of Mr. George L. Hall at Glenelg early on Monday morning, it may be men tioned that on the previous day he went down to Glenelg for some sea bathing — the weather being warm and sultry— as he always felt better for it. Being unable to get rooms at the Pier Hotel he succeeded at the Family Hotel, Esplanade. Early in the evening he retired to his room, and at 5.30 he went to the Baths, but they were not opened, so he evidently determined to bathe from the jetty. Mr. Hall was educated at St. Peters College. He was the eldest son of the late Mr. Robert Liddell Hall, of the Grange, near Adelaide, and nephew of the late Hon. George Hall, Woodside House, Mitcham, and of Mr. Anthony Hall, of the Semaphore. For many years he held a position in the Union Bank at Port Adelaide, where he was well known and re- spected, and afterwards Manager of the Com- mercial Bank, Hawker, till its close. He then turned his attention to the share market, and for some time was a member of the Stock Exchange, Adelaide, where he has left a name for his open and straightforward manner of doing business. Fcxeral of Mk. R. A. Thedrea.— On ? Tuesday afternoon the funeral of the late Mr. R. A. Tredrea, whose sudden death caused such a painful sensation in King William street on Monday evening, took place. Several members of the Sir James 1'er .gusson Lodge, U.A.O.D., of which Sir. 'Tredrea was a member, headed by the A;D., Mr. J. Wilkinson, followed -tht 'hearse to the West-terrace Cemetery. Arch deacon Farr, LL.D.. officiated at the grave, around which, besides the chief mourners, -who . consisted of the brother and iirotherin law o&ibe unfortunate man, there were a large ^number of friends. :NEWil'ARKaiDE Oval— The TJnley Counei] ioreaga^ about to attempt to bring tais Oval into use,' ihey now having the neeessary powei ?io grant a.lease for twenty-one years. -Goonwo£J- Sepasatios.— The attempt tc obtain a separation having failed has induced .a movements o split Goodwood into two wards, ?with double .the present number of Coun «llloi3. Foci. Bnoo» is Bees.— A leaflet dealing -with foal broodSn bees has been issued by the Teehnioai Education Branch of the New South Wales Dejartment of Public Instruc tion- flaring beea issued from the Govern ment Printifig' Office we assume it to be official. It explains what the disease is, and how to treat it. Some three years ago the South Australian Beekeepers' Association distri buted similar information for the benefit of our apiarists. The Society had come io the conclusion, as die result of the lengthened experience and careful read ing of its members, that legislative over *?* sight was necessary in the interests of the jjrowin' industry of bee-farming, and in con

sequence the Foul Brood in Bees Act is now operative here. The writer of the leaflet under notice observes that '* there is no more reason why legislation should be brought to baar } on the pest of foul brood than that an Act of j Parliament should be passed to stamp out tha I diseases of the poultry-yard.3 This is exactly the point. The experience of apiarists in Europe, America, New Zealand, and Aus tralia has, however, led them to believe that the contagious disease which specially affect? the development of their industry is worthy of being dealt with by the Legislature. TJniey Corporation. — The TJnley Town Council sat as a Court to hear appaals against assessments on Monday. Eleven appeals were heard, five being allowed various* reductions, while the remainder were not entertained. Messbs. Hall and Archkr. — Active search and enquiries arc still being made for Mr. G. L. Hall, who is thought to be drowned from off the Glenelg Jetty, and of the youth Archer who left his parents' residence, North Adelaide, on New Year's Day. So far the efforts of friends and police have been in vain. The Sparrow Nuisance.— The Balaklava and Dalkey Agricultural Society at their last Show, in awarding prizes for the greatest num ber of sparrow heads and egg3, extended the time of receiving up to January 1 last, the results being very satisfactory. The Secretary reports having received G,4S3 eggs and 1.141 heads. There were four jjrizes offered for each greatest number of heads and esrgs. The fol lowing are the prizetakers : — Egg3 — A. Fisher 1st. with 2,000 ; B. Hillebrand 2nd, ?arith 1.954 ; A. Wood 3rd, with 1.029 : J. Pym 4th, with 732. Heads— A. Fisher 1st, with 327 ; A. Treager 2nd, with 251 ; J. Pym 3rd, with 234 ; G. Pink 4th, with 149. Pbesentatiox.— On Tue.*lay morning Mr. P. Farelly, Manager of the Gienelg Baths, was presented with a cheque for a substantial amount by the gentlemen who regularly visifc the baths. Mr. X. Maukienuide the presenta tion on behalf of the bather?, and Mr. Farelly expressed his thanks for the gift. On several occasions Jlr. I'arully has Ijeen the means of saving lift) in the baths, and his courtesy has always been appreciated by the bathers. Orphan* Hojra. — The monthly meeting of the committee was held at tho Home, Car rington-street, on January 5. The Secretary re]K-rted having received since last lneatin™ from Mr. Wilkinson the sum of £225, being amount cf bequest of £250, less probate dnty, under the will of the late Mrs. H. K. Hughes ; from Register, donations of £5 from W. and £10 from T. B. ; also £3 3s. from Tattersalls Club and £1 12s. from Parkside Practising Society. Donations of cakes, fruit. &a, are acknowledged from Mesdames Sherwood, J. A. Johnson, J. Chambers, P. F. Bonnin, Bartley, Beach, Evans, Gavin Young, Messrs. A. & W. D. Thomas, Mr. Davey; clothing, Mrs. John Stuart Brown and Miss M. A. Downs; illustrated papers, Mr. H. Rymill. Entertainments have been given by the Ministering- Children's League and Mr. J. A. Johnson. A large quantity of toys, books, work baskets, &c, were given as Christmas presents by the committee of the Children's Christmas Fund, and were presented by a number of ladies of the committee. The plea sure derived by the children from the harmo nium given last year by the same committee has been much enhanced by Miss Adamson attending regularly at the Home and giving the children lessons in music and singing. Accounts to the amount of £31 17s. were passed for payment. The Rev. Canon Poole and the Treasurer were authorized to make arrangements wita. regard to investment of portion of funds. Istercolosial Baseball.— Tho last of tho three baseball matches between teams repre senting South Australia and 'Victoria was (says the Argus of January 5) played on the East Melbourne Cricket Ground on Saturday, and it resulted, like the two others, in a win for Victoria. The attendance of spectators was again limited. The teams, with the posi tions of the men and the batting order, were as i follows: — Victor^ — Jnjdetnn »*™-i ? - ' M*'5l5y, pitcher; Steel (captain), second base; Worrell, right field ; Milford, centre ; Oliver, first base ; Newberfc, catcher ; Musgrove, left field ; McAlister, third base. South Australia — Shawyer, second base ; Price, centre ; E. Ewers, pitcher ; Mclntyre, short stop ; Plun kett, third base; Leak, right field; R. Ewers, catcher; Shipway (captain), left field ; Chance, first base. The visitors commenced exceed ingly well, and in the first innings scored G runs and retired their opponents for none. The Victorians more than reversed this strong lead in the next innings, for they scored 8, and their opponents were all disposed of with out adding tc the score. Victoria further in creased its lead in the third game by scoring 4 to 2, but in the next three made no more, whilst South Australia crept up. At the close of the eighth innings South Australia had 15 runs to 14 made by Victoria, and therefore great interest attached to the ninth and final innings. Victoria made 3 runs, and thus left the other side with 3 to make to win, but the fielding and pitching of the Victorians proved too good, and the team was retired without scoring, leaving: the Victorians the winners by 2 rims. The figures were — Victoria, 17* South Australia, 15. Mr. C. Alexander acted as umpire. Extent of Responsible Government. — Messrs. Clevertlon, Westley, and Dale, the solicitors for the plaintiffs in the now cele brated case of Ah Toy v. Musgrove. have received letters (says tho Melbourne Herald) from their London agents by the last mail, frcci the pur]X-rt of which it seems cxtrCmely probable that the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council will decide the appeal in favour of the appellant on some minor point, most likely on the construction of the Chinese Immigration Act. asd leave the important question of prerogative and constitutional go vernment undecided. Tim: Loccst Pr-*r.— Mr. D. Martin, the Swretary for Agriculture, Iras received the fol lowing leport in Tiiferenee (says the Aiyrts) to the lucKfet pest from Mr. C. French, the Government Entomologist: — 'As the locusts are now depositing vast quantities of eggs it behuvvs all growers to be on the alert, and to i^e every means within their reach to combat the pest whenever it should make its appear ance. The- eggs -now being deposited will, in all probability, bc/hatched aliout the first week in February— that is, if the weather be hot— and land should, ivijere practicable, be ploughed and scarified more than once. If a roughly contructtd brush-harrow be passed over the surface vast numbers of the eggs will be either i-rushtd or devitalized. In bare plnces, where thft egg deposits are large, a good plan will be to lay loose straw upon the soil after being turned \xp, and then set tire to it. In dry wtatlicr this must -fee done with care, or the surround in? conn try may be 'fired.' Tar water (say 1 lb. to 100 gallons of water) is rhtap and very effectaal in injuring eggs of the locust. When the young locusts are first hatched travelling mobs of sheep over them is an e»xellent plan. The castor oil plant is eaten greedily by locusts, and should be largely planted in thr drier districts. Arsenical pre parations, es)K-eially vrhen used on grazing areas, should be used with great care, as stock, poultry, insectivorous birds, &c, are likely to suffer.greatly. Tar. is quite as good, is safer and cheaper, and is not offensive to stock. The locally reared locusts will be shortly st work, so that all shouldastist in their destruc tion/' Shipping 1]edekatiox.— The Irish Ship owners' Association, whose head-quarters are at Dublin, in (writes a correspondent of the Times, dated November 26J, proposing to amalgamate with the Shipping Federation, and negotiations with tuat object in view are .now proceeding. If, hewever, the amalgama tion, as is fully expected, should bo brought about, it will not add very materially to the total tonnage embraced in the Federation, many Irish shipowners being- already members of that body either individually or through, protective or other Associatioes. The proposed combination would, nevertheless, place the Irish shipowners, as a body, in a position which, in view of recent troubles at Irish ports, it is thought desirable they should assnme. With regard to these troubles, it is stated that they are somewhat different from those pre vailing elsewhere, owing to certain political considerations which, have been introduced into the Irish phase of the 'shipping crisis.' Some weeks ago, for instance, the Dock Labourers' Registered Union of Barrow-in-Furness endeavoured to foroo the Rail and Dock Company to recognise

he leaders of that Union, and to deal with the uen only through, its officers. .TheDockCom )any, however, objected to pledge themselves o adopt any such course, and declared, that hey intended to employ Union! or non-Union nen without showing any preference for. Unionists. Thereupon aa order was. issued hat all vessels loaded at Barrow should be docked, at other ports. This order has been ?ofar obeyed that it has caused serious diffi :ulties at Liverpool and elsewhere. But at Belfast and other Irish porls the matter has jeen still further complicated, because the lockers, who have . blocked vessels arriving therefrom Barrow, have been supported by subscriptions sent, to' their Union — either iirectly or through Various private channels known to those who are behind the scenes — by the Irish National Party. The reasons' for this course of tactics may not be apparent at the first glance, but it is believed to be fully it-counted for by the fact that the vessels in juestion are loaded with rails for the light rail ivays in Ireland, the construction of which has been decided on by the Government. Bonuses. — A return has been prepared (says the Argus) by the Secretary of Agriculture jiving particulars of the applications which tiave been received for agricultural bonuses. For the wine bonuses, amounting to £25,000, iSG applications have been recorded, the area proposed to be cultivated being 5,934 acres. A sum of £15,000 was allotted for the planting ind cultivation of forest trees of an economic character, and 320 applications have been re :eived for participation in this vote, the area to be put under cultivation being 1,G13 acres. An amount of £37,000 has been appropriated for bonuses to factories for fruit canning and drying, the production of vegetable oils, flax, bemp, sugar, and insecticide. Up to the present time £3.40S has been paid in bonuses under this head. The amount does not include % sum of £2,423 given for the establishment of butter factories. The total quantity of butter exported during last year was 440 tons 10 cwt. 3 qrs. General Booth's Scheme. — It is not gene rally known that General Booth's scheme was anticipated (remarks the European Mail of November 2S) in all its details by the Church Army, yet such is the fact. The experimental 'Home for Tramps and Inebriates' was in successful working order last January, 'and fclie Army had planned similar homes in hundreds of suitable parishes throughout England. This social work has been and still is in active and most beneficent operation ; but this is not all. Early last March a pamphlet was issued pro posing ''a farm settlement near London on Church Armv lines, as well as emigration to the colonies, by an organized scheme.' Now, therefore, that the General's plan is fairly launched, a plea is rightfully put in for the Church Army, who will be content with a modest £10,000, to continue and develop their great undertaking. It has the support of the Archbishops and Bishops and many eminent lay members of the national Church. Let it be understood that there is no rivalry between the two schemes — it is very distinctly dis avowed in the present appeal, which is dated from the head-quarters, 128, Edgware-road west Abtificiai. Rubies.— What is the use of exploring unknown and dangerous countries for rubies (asks the Paris correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph of November 13) when the secret of their artificial production has been discovered ? This was the question which the Academy of Sciences discussed on the report of MM. Fremy and Verneuil, who for some time past have been making chemical experiments in the manufacture of these stones. More valuable than mere theory was the fact that the two chemists I have named exhibited, for the inspection of the learned Society of which they are members, some hundreds of specimens of the glittering red crystals they had succeeded in producing. The rubies were admitted by all to be much superior to anything hitherto manufactured. No little danger, however, attends the process. The chemicals have to be fused at ft beat so intense that M. Yerneuii, during foe goujsa of .... experiments, neauj iost his sight. While manufacturing rubies the two chemists found that at a certain stage of the operations crystals of tho colour of sapphires were pro duced, but the hue hitherto obtained has not been equal to the tint of the real gem. This is a defect which they hope soon to be able to rectify after further observation and experi ment. The only regretable part of the busi ness is that, owing to the high price of the chemicals required and the difficulty of manipulation, the artificial rubies cannot be produced at a price cheaper than the natural precious 6tones. Guests of India.— Major-General Tulloch has received a private letter from India, in which (says the Melbourne Telegraph) a glow ing account is given of the reception which is being accorded to Captain Inglis, of the Vio torian Artillery, and Captain Officer, of the staff, who have proceeded to India, with the sanction of the Imperial authorities, to -witness tho winter camp. From what Major-Greneral Tulloeh'e correspondent states it would bs seen that the two Victorian officers are ia a fair way of being- thoroughly spoilt, for they are being treated like national envoys, the Govern ment and military authorities vying with each other in showing hospitality. They are looked upon as the 'guests of India,' and in being shown over all the military cssips they are practically being shown over the whole of India. They are not permitted to incur any '? expense in making their tours, -every travelling and almost every personal requirement being provided for them by the Government, and everything conceivable being done for them to render their visit as pleasant and profitable as possible. They have made themselves .per sonally popular, and are highly spoken of in military circles. A Royal Claimant. — The grandson of the celebrated Naundorff, the Potsdam shoemaker ?who claimed to be by right Louis XVIL, Kinc of France, ha3 (says the Paris correa jioudenfc of the Jkiily Jf/eics) spent a few ?weeks at Fontainebleau, at the house of one of his partisans. There are still people in France who believe that the -eon of Louis XVI. never died in the Teinplr prison, but was taken to Germany as the adopted child of a workman and brought up there. The present head of the House of Bourbon, as the Naundorff family is called by its ad herents, is an officer in tho Dutch Army. He is styled officially Louis de Bourbon, in virtue of an Act of the States-General of December 22, 1S-»3, which conferred Dutch, eitizeuship upon his father, Prince Adalbert. The latter, the sou of Naundorff, was born at Cainbervell, and was entered at the registrar's on April 20, 1840, under tho name of Adalbert, Prince of France, son of H.E.H. Chaslas Louis, Duke of Normandy, and of Jeanne Einert, his wife. M. Jules Favre wrote a panijihlet to prove the legitimacy of Naundorff, aud brought forward very serious arguments, which, so far as I know, have never been refuted. Leaders of the Royalist party regard him, however, as an hnposter. Indians ix America. — Relative to the con dition of the Indians in the United States, tho Times quotes the last report iof the Commis sioner for Indian Affairs to ihe Secretary of the Interior at Washington. Jt appears that it has become the settled policy of the Govern ment to break up the reservations, destroy tribal relations, settle Indiana upjn their own homesteads, incorporate them into the nation, and generally deal with them as individual citizens, not as nations or tribes. 'The Ame rican Indian is to become the Indian Ameri can.' A public school system is .-being pro vided, under which every Indian boy may obtain the rudiments of an English, education, .and be enabled to make an honest .living for :Limself. The Indians, it is said, .understand this policy, and are adapting ihem Eolves readily to it. li During the past jwar,' sajrs the Commissioner, 'I have had peKonal interviews with prominent ohtefs and representative Indians everywhere, and almost without exception they hav« pleaded for more and better schools.' Adequate iin structian is now provided in all ordinary handicrafts, and with few exceptions every reservation school is crowded, and hundreds -if children who are willing to go to ached are paevented by want of proper accommodation. There wew 16,377 Indian children on the school rolls during the past year, and an average attendance of 12,232, which is but a fraction over a third of the school population. At the date of the report, there were 133 Indian retervationa in the United States, having a total area of 106 million acres, or 101,2-50 square Sjfles. Daring last year about

thirteen mfllionacres were: secured by cession from the Indians, - and agreements by which about four and a half millions more would be' obtained were awaiting the ratification of Congress. Nearly 3,000 allotments of lands in Eeveralty. were made- during the year -under various acts of Congress. One Company Sues Another.— The London Financial JVeira of November 27 reports that 'yesterday the case of the Mount Osmond Silver-lead Mining Company, Limited, v. the Mines!' Investment'' '' Corporation, Limited, came before Mr. Secondary Roderick and a Special Jury in the Secondary's Court, Guild hall. The plaintiff Company had been floated by the defendant Company. It was arranged that it should not be floated with less than £10,000 subscribed by the public but only £8,200 was applied for. Thereupon the defen dants guaranteed the remainder, and this action was brought to enforce payment. Mr. E. M. Robertson, for the plaintiffs, having opened the case, judgment was entered by consent for £50.' Mr. D. Cukistie Murray and the Stage. — The London correspondent of the Scotsman has received a letter from Mr. David Christie Murray in reference to his taking to the stage, in which he says : — 'Is it such a wonderful thing that a man of my age should be humble, and should be willing to learn a new craft from its very beginning? I have done enough already to permit me without much vanity to despise the opinion of the silly crowd who make the gain or eminence of a moment the criterion of a life's success. I shall devote myself to the writing of plajs, and try and create my own character parts, not appearing in London till I have learned my business pretty well. I know that I have at last found my true vocation, and lighted on a way of life in which I can employ every force I have. I mean to work at it as hard and as humbly as I can, remtmberirg there is no royal road to any form of art. I am only following my own old law — humility, labour, patience — patience, labour, humility — these three make common place talent pass for genius oftentimes, but they make genuis resplendent. If I possess any tiny spark of that great gift I will try to make the most of it, and work as hard and as humbly as I can.' Destitute Polish Jews. — The arrival of 300 Polish Jews m a destitute condition at the London Docks can hardly fail (says a London contemporary of November 26) to cause fresh ontbursts of indignation amonsr the workers of the East End. They were, it seems, sent over by a Russian Emigration Society, and were brought over in a German ship. Work ing men in London may well protest against being exposed to the competition of paupsr foreigners, and ratepayers in general have a right to feel equally aggrieved. Why should Russia, who throws every obstacle in the way of foreigners wishing to settle in that country, be allowed to unload itself of its paupers at our expense? It is not probable that this is the sole cargo of paupers that the Russian Emigration Society intends to send over, and assuredly the demand that we shall follow the example of the United States, and refuse to allow pauper immigrants to set foot on our shores, will shortly become irresistible. At the present moment the condition of the East End poor is attracting public attention, and schemes on a large scale are on foot for lessening the pressure of want ; but what hope is there that the efforts of philanthropy can avail if the places of those raised from pauperism are to be supplied from abroad ? All that the Government intend to do is to instruct the Consul at Hamburg to issue a warning to intending passengers against their relying on the assurances of finding employment when they reach this country. - River Levels. — The following shows the state of the rivers above summer level at the undermentioned places at 9 a.m. on Tues day, January 6: — Murray — Albury, 4 ft. 4 in.;AVahgunyah, 6 ft 8 in.; Echuca, 11 ft 6 in.; Eustbn, 24 ft 7 in.; Overland Corner, 19 ft 9 in.; Morgan, 21 ft Murrombidgee— Gun- daigai, 5 ft ; Wagga Wagga, 4 ft 9 in.; Hay, 3 ft 9 in.; Balranald, 14 ft 6 in. ; Tilpa, ' *♦-- fiin.j Wfleannia, 7 ft. 9i in.; Menindie, 19^'ft 7 in.; Poonoarle', *2! «? 8«M Went worth, 19 ft 6 in. Namoi and Barwon— Bourke, summer level ; Renmark, 16 ft. 7 in. Civil Service Examination. — Messrs. Fisk, Newbould, and Sanderson, who passed the Civil Service examination, were prepared by Mr. »T. C. Hayward, of the Pulteney-street School. Poet Adelaide Regatta. — The prize3 won on New Year's Day will be distributed by the Mayor (Mr. C. Tucker) in the Port Town Hall this evening. Received.— For Dr. Barnardo's Orphanage, £1, Help ; £10, W. Mofnin. Annual report of the Adelaide Children's Hospital.

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