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The Advertiser WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 11, 1888.

AT the first meeting of the Federal Council of Australasia held in February, 1886, the president, Mr. Service, de-<*> livered an eloquent and a stirring speech,

in which, while acknowledging the de fects of the first form of federal union agreed to by the Australian colonies, he expressed the view that it was the germ from which In time would spring a- com plete and powerful federation, giving to Australasia the character and influence of a great united nation. Regret* fully bearing'Jn mind the fact that Mew South Wales, South Australia, and New Zealand were unrepresented in the Coun cil, and that its powers were circumscribed by the cautious legislation of the Imperial Parliament, Mr.' Service still had faith enough to say—"Their position was wholly unpretentious in its character and strictly limited in its scope, but nevertheless it was important in its practical bearings in the present and in lta symbolical foreshadowing of the future." Few of the friends of federa tion could have imagined at that time that two years would pass away with out the least progress being made in the cause of Australasian unity, and that at the end of tbat period the Federal Council would in fact prove to be a lamentable failure. Yet such hi the result that has now to be recorded. The meeting of the Federal Council, which cvght to hare been held last year,

was omitted because it was thought that the spectacle of an assembly from which the representatives of throe impor tant colonies most necessarily be absent, would rather damage than assist the federal movement. Mr. Gillies, the Vic torian Premier, apologised for what was reallj an enforced recess by a suggestion which deceived nobody, that after al* there was no business of pressing impor tance to bring before the Council, and also by the statement that as South Australia after the general elec tion would probably consent to join the Council, it would be "a graceful compli ment/ to that colony to postpone the second meeting for a year. Evidently there was little hope that Hew Sooth Wales or Vow Zealand would recede from its attitude of hostility or Indifference, but as no South Australian Government has been absolutely unfriendly to repre sentation in the Council, it was taken almost for granted that our Parliament would no longer delay the passing of the necessary legislation for adopting the Imperial Act. The Federal Council Is nevertheless as " limited in its scope " now as it was at the beginning. Merely with the object of keeping it alive, and. with so idea whatever of transacting other than purely formal business, it has been arranged that the Council shall meet again at Hobart on the 26th of the present month. Victoria has from the first been the life and soul of the federation cause, but even in that colony it is beginning to be seen that to maintain the Council as at present constituted would be a stupid and unmeaning farce, and the question is seriously put *' why the Council should not be allowed to die a natural death V Who or what is to .blame ? Is it the Imperial Enabling Act that is at fault, or the colonies which refuse to avail them selves of its provisions ? The fact has never been denied that the arrangement sanctioned by the Imperial Parliament was intended to be of merely atentative or experimental character. The colonies were left perfectly free to say whether or not they would enter the union, and until four agreed to join the Council could not come into existence. Foil power of withdrawal after notice was also conferred. The legislative functions of the Council were restricted in various directions. Authority was given to legislate as to the relations of Australasia with the Islands of the Pacific, the prevention of the Influx of criminals, and fisheries in Australasian waters be yond territorial limits; but Bills affecting these questions had to be reserved for the signification of the royal pleasure. Such matters as general defences. Customs, quarantine, patents and copyright, marriage and divorce Un, naturalisation of aliens, and so on, could not be made the subject of general legis lation without reference to the Council by the Legislatures of two or more colonies ; and even then the Acts of the Council would only extend to the colonies desiring these matters to be dealt with, or such other colonies as might afterwards adopt the same. In the case of every Act the power of disallowance by the Crown was of course reserved. The voluntary element prevails so largely in the consti tution of the Council that it must be acknowledged it falls far short of the ideal of a federal union. But still the Enabling Act gave pretty well all that ?H aiked, and as much as in the existing circumstances of the colonies it would have been expedient to grant. Australasia was not and is not ready for a complete federation such as that enjoyed by the Canadian Dominion. The colonies certainly could not at this stage agree upon a law of general application with regard to Customs. That fact is of itself an insuperable obstacle to the establishment of a con federation upon Canadian lines. But because perfect unity is not immediately attainable it is surely unreasonable to contend that a measure which would tend to bring the colonies Into closer relations than have existed in the past should be rejected altogether. Half a loaf or even B_cmiit Is better than no bread at all. Much of the usefulness of the Federal Council should consist in its power of educating colonial opinion up to the point from which a new departure in the direction of complete federation might at some future time be taken. It is a bitter disappointment to the promoters of the federal idea that the scheme originally sketched out at the Intercolonial Confe rence in Sydney should have proved thus far abortive. We cannot avoid the con clusion that the responsibility for this depressing result rests to a large extent with the three dissenting colonies. We are equally unable to see that any one of them can offer a sufficient defence for the policy oi isolation it has chosen to adopt. There cannot be the least doubt that die strong opposition of New South Wales to the Federal Council is due to a miserable feeling of jealousy and sus picion In respect of the progress and aspirations of Victoria. The events of the past two years have unfortunately not tended to promote a more friendly feeling between the two colonies. Victoria's as sumption of the business of celebrating the centenary of New South Wales by holding an International Exhibition created widespread resentment in the neighboring state. The recent trouble about the proposal of Sir Henry Parkes to rename New South Wales Australia has helped further to strain relations that were already far from amicable. The fight between New South Wales and Victoria for the Biverina trade, and the suspicion of the former colony that its southern neighbor desires to use federation as an instrument for securing a redistribution of territory, are also important factors in the situation. Though Sir Henry Parkes, rushing into heroics on a recent occasion, pompously deolared that he was " one of the strongest advocates for the federation of Australia," his grandiloquent and defiant language was calculated to intensify present diffe rences rather than to promote unity. New South Wales cannot enter into federation, he declared, except as a **strong power." Their first duty was to put it "in|the best place they could;" they would " not go in a recreant and weak spirit, cap In hand ;" it was not for them " to beg their way Into the federal party"—and so on. Euch Inflated rhodomontade from one who claims to be an Australian states man is indeed disheartening. It is a pity that the Premier of New South Wales does not recognise with the Agent-General of that colony, Sir Saul Samuel, that the " Federal Council can do useful work," and give it a little more influence by securing the admission of his colony to its deliberations. South Australia's position in regard to the federal movement is not a very cre ditable one. We joined with the other colonies in inviting the Imperial Parlia ment to pass the Enabling Act, and yet

continue to stand aloof from the union

formed under its provisions. The pre sent Government promised Mr. Gillies to introduce an Adopting Bill last year' bat they did not keep their word. It it to be feared that the general atti tude towards the Federal Council in this colony is one of indifference. Parochial politics have too much fasci nation for our legislators. Local ques tions are almost exclusively considered, and subjects of Australian and Imperial interest attract little attention in our Parliament. We are governed as though South Australia were a Little Pedlington Instead of being, as it really is, one of a group of great colonial states. The diffi culty in carrying legislation to enable South Australia to join the Federal Council has hitherto arisen from the difference of opinion as to the mode of representation—whether the delegates should be members of the Ministry of the day, elected by the popular vote, or selected by Parliament. But as we have full power under the Imperial Act to decide the question In any way we please, It is surely a reflec tion on the capacity of the Legislature that no solution has been arrived at. The Federal Council is apparently dying from the want of support, and unless JNew South Wale? and South Australia come to the rescue speedily it is pro bable that its second meeting will be its last.

The periodical attacks which certain sections of the £nglish press make on the Australian colonies on account of their frequent borrowing has, we believe, almost invariably a contrary effect to that intended. Timid investors look into matters for themselves, and finding ample security for their advances are quite content to hold their stock and anxious to procure more as opportunity offers. The Australian colonies have everything to gain by the most searching enquiry into their resources, and hence the igno rance or malice of their detractors be comes the stepping-stone by which they rise in public confidence. It is only a month or so ago that one of these jere miads of the press was directed against South Australia. The attack was one which was more likely to be successful than such attacks usually are, considering the bad time? through which we were known to have been passing, and the very ineffective reply of the Agent-General to the statements of our critic But what is the result to-day? The 4 per cent, bonds of the colony are quoted at £104 10s., and South Australia is in such a position that unless some really reproduc tive public works are shown to be neces sary for the development of the country there will be no need for increasing our indebtedness to English lenders, and the feeling is general throughout the colony that there is no present need for further borrowing. There is ample work for all without the aid of Government expenditure, and money is accumulating in the banks to an inconvenient extent, notwithstanding the fact that Government deposits are probably lower than they have been for many years past. An evi dence of the favor with which Australian loans are still regarded In London is found in the circumstance that Victoria, being about to borrow £1,500,000, is fixing the minimum ?t £104. We believe we are right in stating that this is the highest rate which any Australian colony has ever ventured to name, bat we an told through the telegraph that already a premium above the minimum fixed *""? been offered for the bonds. Now, Vic toria is a protectionist colony, with a strongly protectionist Agent-General, and yet free-trade England has such confidence in her that she offers a high premium for the opportunity of lending her money. Granted the continuance of peace in Europe, and there aeema every proba bility of Australian Government bonds being higher throughout 1888 than they have ever been before. Money accumu lates at home with great rapidity, and the serious decline which has taken place in the value of farming lands has decreased then: powers of mortgage so materially that an outlet has to be found elsewhere for the investment of savings which would, had the conditions remained the same as in yean gone by, have been lent on landed securities in England. That Mr. Goschen's proposal to issue £15,000,000 worth of debentures at 3 per cent, is regarded with great satisfac tion is shown by the premium investors are willing to pay. It is quite evident that if the South Australian Government wanted to borrow in the English market they could do so upon very favorable terms; but whilst no new loans are required for public pur poses at present there is a wide scope for the employment of British capital in private channels. The occupation and development of our pastoral country would afford ample opportunity for the profitable investment of money, and the sale of the 1888 leases gives a chance to secure pastoral lands within easy reach of railways and shipping ports which will probably never arise again in the history of the colony. The local competitors for these leases are likely to be so few as to justify considerable anxiety as to the financial results to the State. What we want is that the attention of the outside world should be drawn to the fact that the leases are to be offered. A few hieroglyphical notices in the Government Oazette or meagre advertisements in the newspapers are not sufficient. A fair de scription of the country should be given, and details as to conditions of sale sup plied. Let the Government ask them selves the questions—What chance have people in England of knowing that such country is to be offered at all ? What in formation could the Agent-General supply them with if they applied to him ? And weighing carefully the answers which in honesty they are bound to give, let them remedy neglect before it is too late. The Premier has a reputation for not being afraid of anybody, especially a squatter. We cannot believe that political exigenoies or a dread of the squatters' votes In Parliament will prevent him from acting in a business-like way about this matter, and In giving that publicity to the sale of the 1888 leases which Is essential to obtaining a proper amount of competition. The comparatively limited area of the blocks to be comprised In new pastoral leases may not prove attractive to huge companies or large capitalists; but there are thousands of men In Eng land who would be glad of such an oppor tunity to go into sheepfarming on a moderate scale within reach of the con veniences and luxuries of life. But in the interior of this colony there are hun dreds of thousands of square miles of country suitable for cattle and sheep rearing which have not a hoof of stock

upon It. There Is water ; there is feed ; the railway la within a reasonable distance of the country, and is aura to be con tinued before long right into the very heart of it. All that is wanted to make its occupation profitable is enterprise, in dustry, and capital. There is scope in this colony for the employment of millions of money with the absolute certainty of success if the capital is wisely expended. British mil lions are poured into Texas, into the Argentine Republic, and almost every where, with In very many cases prospects of ancceee altogether small as compared with those which we have to offer. In other colonies many of the leading men devote themselves to making known the advantages which their countries possess, and in endeavoring to torn them to the beet account. We are singularly unfor tunate in the lack of each men; and ia this connection it would, we believe, be to the benefit of the colony if the position of Agent-General were not regarded as a life appointment. If some of our best men had the chance of, say three years service in that capacity in London they would become known In business and financial circles there, and their opinions and advice would have weight as coming from men intimately and personally ac quainted with the recent development of the colony. However honest or intelli gent a man may be, his views are not likely to carry much weight in regard to a young and progressive country if It is known that he has not seen it for 10 or 15 yean. What* ever obstacles stand In the way of the intro duction of British capital and?ritishsettlera into this colony should be removed. We do cot require money just now for State purposes. What we want is more people to assist In developing the resources of the colony, and some energy and determina tion on our part in making those resources known. There are thousands amongst us who are still content to see " Great Australian Desert" scrawled across the map, knowing all the time that the interior is rich in pastoral and mineral wealth, only requiring British capital which is seeking occupation, and British settlers who are pining for an outlet for their energy, to turn It to profitable oses. The ugly duckling of the fairy tale grew into the beautiful swan ; it was development that relieved it of Its ugli ness and awkwardness. It Is about time that we got out of the ugly duckling stage, and it is necessary to feel that it is possible for us to do so.

A party of about 60 gentlemen will leave by special train at 6.40 this morning for Broken Hill, there to take part in the ceremony of opening the railway from Silverton to that town. Amongst those invited are the Duke of Manchester (who arrived tram Melbourne yesterday), the Commissioner of Grown Lands and the Commissioner of Public Works (representing the South Australian Govern ment), the Hon. J. C. Bray, and other members of Parliament, The arrangements for the trip are under the direction of Mr, W. A. Horn, M.P., who has takes great pains to make the passengers as comfortable as possible daring the long journey. Another special excursion tram will leave in the evening, ""< by this the gnettcof the banqueting committee ac well as others who choose to visit the silver fields daring the festivities will proceed to Broken HilC We understand that his Lordship Bishop Kennion intends to leave foe P-i^wii by the M.M. steamer Tans, which is announced to tail on the 24th of next month. He will be f oonmpaniad by Mrs. Kennion and the Bey. B. O. Stephenson. Canon Whitington leaves lor Europe in the Orient steamer Orizaba on the 23rd inst. We have to announce the death of Mrs. Charles Mann, the wife of the Crown Solicitor, which took place at her 1-Mri.iwire. JSast lerrace, early on Tuesday morning. The deceased lad* had been ailing for a long time, Lnt her death came rather unexpectedly. Toe uneral wOl take place to-day. Unfortunately the Hon. C. Mann v away from the colony at present, having left Adelaide for New Zea land some days ago on a holiday tour. The Victorian express train was delayed considerably on its journey from Melbourne to Adelaide on Tuesday. Before reaching the bor der the axles of the brake- van became heated, and eventually another was substituted. This van being unsuited for the hilts traffic was changed at Murray Bridge. Hence arose the delay. Daring Monday night a robbery was com mitttd in the Jetty Hotel, Glenelg. Xhsgoods stolen were valued at about £120, and included ?a gold watch and chain worth £60. No cine to the perpetrator of the theft has yet been dis covered. Mr. H. B. Hardt reports that he has secured to date from the Jubilee Exhibition for the Centenary Universal Exhibition to be opened in March in Sjdney:—l6s British, £5 Aus trian, 20 German, 12 Belgian, 4 Italian, 18 other continental, and 12 South Australian exhibits. The waik of dismantling the Exhibition was carried on briskly on Tuesday, and con siderable progress was made, especially in the main hall, basement, and eastern and western annexes. About 1,000 men are employed in the work of repacking, &c, and a number of trollies were constantly p*-"ig in and out of the Exhibition loaded with cases and goods. This morning a sale of furniture and other goods takes place in the Belgian court in the main h?il. Invitations have been issued by the agents of the P. & O. Company and Captain Totnlin of the K.MS, Britannia for an inspection of that vessel on Saturday next, on wnich day she will leave ?ilenelg on her first home ward voyage. There will also be a luncheon on the occasion, to which a limited anmber of gentlemen have been invited. The Britannia, it will be remembered, made a remarkably fast maiden passage to Australia. She is a magni ficent steamer, and represents the highest de gree of perfection to which shipbuilding has now been brought. Referring to the Silverton and Broken HOI Tramway, the Broken Hill Times of January 7 writes:—" The train time-table at present is as follows—Trains will leave Broken Will for Silverton and Cockburn at 1.55 a.m. and 6 o'clock a.m., returning from Cockburn for Silverton and Broken Hill at 6.30 p.m. and 11.45 p.m. !Jfte hour of departure will not rail the ladies and children very well, but passen gers will be enabled to arrive in Adelaide nest evening in good time. We would respectfully direct the attention of the South Australian Government to the necessity of revising their time-table so far as regards the Broken Hill trains. Nothing short of one express train per day will satisfy the residents and business people of the Barrier Bacse, and we intend to give the Railway l)epartment no peace until an express train is put on between Adelaide via Terowie and Btoken Hill." As many of our readers are doubtless aware an International Exhibition is to be held this year at Brussels, and Mr. P. Washer, how oc cupies a prominent position in connection with the Btlgian court here, is interesting himself on behalf of South Australia and Victoria, Mr. Washer, who has had considerable exhibi tion experience, purposes returning to Belgium about the 25th of this month, and has already put himself in communication with the Chamber of Manufactures through Sir Samuel Davenport. The chamber, however, have no funds to spare for this purpose, and Mr Washer accordingly offers to represent the Government for a nominal sum, just sufficient to pay his expenses, they to pay cost of freight on goods sent. Mr. Washer specially desires that our vignerons may be represented, and several gentlemen connected with the wine trade to whom he has spoken have evinced a strong wish to have their vintage shown there. The mounted constable stationed at Mount Freeling has forwarded a report to the Com missioner of Police with reference to the finding of a swag on the Oallabunnie run, the owner of which is supposed to have perished through want of water. The swag was found by a man named Frederick P&rgi, a boundary- ; rider, when heading towards Molawartina. 1 From the appearance of the bundle it would , seem that it had lain there for some six months. Among the articles in ths swag was a, book. \ afterwards identified as once belonging to a Mr. Summerfield, who had sold it to a man working on Mr. McCallum'6 station, and from his description the swag found was once the property of a man named Ernest Moller, who lelt Mr. McC&llum'e station in February last intending to go to Callabunna, and has ' not since been heard of. The trooper scoured the neighborhood for a radius of ten miles from where the articles were found, but without finding any 'trace of the miming man. It ia

supposed that hu remains were other buried in the sand or deytmred by wild dags. Broken HOI is rapidly filling in anticipation of fheAsttvities, writes the Silver Ageot Satur day. Already therearescoreeof visitors in the *2^F* ??B"Plca?a? amongst whom ?re a group of bookmakers, who are basy already over the caces to take place on Friday. The doubles ate rapidly filling up, there having been a rush on Shareholder and Mneae, Tom Crib and .Eneas, and a few others. As might be ex pected from the resale of the principal event of the SuVerton races, Mr. Wilson's b?y geld ing is thought a lot of; bat the knowing ones seem to doubt etui that the horse is too green to bold bis own against tried horses. At the beginning of next week a great influx of visitors is expected, and do doubt the ac commodating powers of Broken HOI hotels — never snfficdent—will be taxed to the utmost. Several new houses will, however, probably be opened in time to ease the crash somewhat. The racing track is said to bs in fine condition, and with anything like fine weather there should be a larger attendance npon the course than has ever hitherto been known on the Barrier. Good progress is also being made with the arrangements for the reception of the distinguished visitors. "Mr. Gillies has received," says the Mel bourne Aqt, "a communication from the Premier of South Australia intimating that bis Government is favorable to the proposal that the colonies shall unite in inviting liord vVoUeley.or some other eminent British military authority to visit Australia, inspect the land defence forces and endeavor to arrange a mutual understanding amongst the colonies as to the action to be taken in the event of any of them being attacked by an enemy. Mr. Gillies anticipates that the New South Wales Government will also favor tfaa proposal, as Sir Henry Parkas baa already expressed himself as willing to cooperate in such a movement. Mr. Gillies wilt probably learn the views on the subject held by SirS. W. Griffiths, the Premier of Queens land, who is on bis way to attend the Federal Council at Hobart. Although it n desired that Lord Woleeley should himself visit the colonies, in the event of it being found impos sible to obtain his services the Australian Go vernments will be glad to accept the nomina tion of other distinguished military officers, such as Sir Evelyn Wood, General Sir f7& Boberts, or General Brackeaabory.* A state ment was made public recently Oat fcord wolseley could not come to Anstralm ia tha present condition of affairs in Europe. Lod Woleelcy hae already been consulted privately, and has expressed his willingness to make the visit." The close of the cession of the New Zealand Parliament is thus described by the Oonedin correspondent of the Melbourne Argv* im hi* letter of December SO:—As members of Parlia ment were ell anxious to reach their homes ?ot Christmas, and as bis Excellency Sir William Jervois intimated his willingness to agree to the measures passed, it was determined to finish the business before adjourning on the night of the 23rd inst. The Supplementary Estimates were pushed through, and tne Aaa? tralasian Naval Oefences BUI was passed, tha Premier making a strong appeal in its favor: It met with aome opposition from Mr. HTw^M eon, who auceeeeded Mr. Bryce in the repre sentation of Waitotara, and from Sir George Grey, who wished it postponed till next tesswn. The Premier ?"*?"?*ftHi that he did not think it wise to ask for a subsidy for the cable between the colony and New South Wales, as be oonudured if it were not paying the Eastern Extension Company should tain the rates, and make those who used the cable pay. A resolution was passed autho rising the Government to continue she pre sent San Francisco maQ service for ?Mttwf year, and then the Appropriation* Bill was passed, and the session was finished a few mmnfaM before 6 o'clock on the """W of the 24th. Of the work of the session it may be stated (bat of the 122 Bills which origi nated in the Ziower House and the U in tne Council 73 were dropped by the former and 10 by the lattes. The sittings extended over 44 days, the average hours being 7 hours 34 minutes, of which 66 hours were after mid night. Messrs. Biekford & Tennant have just com pleted a hanrtimmfi addition to the architecture of Cnrrie-street by transforming the cental space of the Soyal Hone Bazaar into an auction mart, superior in size and effect to any thing of the kind in the city. A vestibule 40 feet x 23 feet wide, laid with' Mintoa Idea, and having -moulded fy?H"g and dado,'leads through wide doors to a flight of steps at the fmtrance to the mart; which is 30 feet high, and lighted from both aides by a aerie* of glass panels dose under the moulded wooden eating. These give an abundance of light* and are made to open for purposes of ventila tion. At the south end of the mart, which ia 38 feet x 68 feet on the ground floor, a 10-feet gallery, reached by two flights of stairs, with a pitch-pine rostrum between them, connecU the first floor showrooms. The western room is 62 feet x 29 feet, and the eastern 148 feet x SO feet, and in addition access is given to the topmost floor of tha main budding to Currie-etreet SO feet z36 feet by stairs and at lift. The business offices and strong rooms are on the western side of the vestibule, with an entrance direct into the mart as weU. The doors for goods are at the sooth end behind the rostrum, and connected with a private roadway. The counters, which are of pitch pine, are made in sections on rollers, and can be removed without difficulty. Five fine shops, each 27 feet xl 2 feet, have been made facing Topham-street, giving it a basinesa like appearance. Messrs. William Ling and Sana have carried out the "<iit*mfl*? expadi tioualy and weQ under the direction of the architects {Messrs. English & Sosrard). The acoustic properties of the mart are very good, The space over thegaHery will afford excellent hanging space for putures. The particulars of an accident to Messrs. O. Clark and White are qjveninthe Broken HSL Time* as follows :—The two C" tl'"""nnt?rtrri for a drive with a unicorn team and buggy, Mr. Clark driving. The two wheelers, which were the driver's property, seemed to be pretty well under control, but it was evident bom the start that the leader, a splendid new horse, belonging to Bnrgeasfe stable, was josta trifle too unmanageable fot Mr. Clarfc Agood deal of difficulty was encountered ait the start, and some friends advised the driver to allow Me White to take charge of the rib bons, but be declined to do so. After driv ing round for a litti?< tune it was HanMaif to turn their horses' heads homewards; bat when opposite the Silver King Hotel, in Argent-saeet, the team became TmTnanagn abie, and swept down the street at a ratine pace. Mr. White, of the-Broken Hill Hotel, called to his friend to pot on the brake, but the driver failed to do so, and the runaways made straight for the side of the above mentioned hotel at full speed. Anticipating what would happen, Mr. White -raMf-l the ?win from the driver, *"*** just managed to clear the boildinftjL hot *r* wrww Mr. Clark became entangled in the cems, and was polled from his seat by the ffarpt leader. Then Mr. White went orerthe aide of the buggy, and the bow thoroughly terrified horses bolted as far as the baths in Oxide-street, where they were brought to a Btandwtui; not, however, until they ware badly cut about. The trap xeceirad com paratively little damage. The two gentlemen were picked up by some friends. It was found that Mr. White had escaped with a severe shaking, but Mr. Chas. dark had not been so fortunate. Dr. Groves was called in, and it was found that his left hip was dislocated and the neck of the thigh-bone fractured. Theia jnred man is progressing as favoEably as can be expected, under the treatment of hu medial adviser, but it will be a long tame before he wi? be able to move about again. The following paragraph, which appeared ia the Sydney DoOn TOegropk of Saturday last, will be read with interest by Portomana, espe cially tftf^fl of fy>nfjiy^ engineering class, and those who delight in seeing that we have men in the colony who can compete success fully with those in the same line of employ ment in the other colonies:—"Some months ago the execntive council of the Australasian Institution of Marine Engineers decided to present a prize of the value of £10 and tha annual gold medal of the institution for 1887 for the best paper on the * *J"?^e* M*^?'*t ?* Marine Boilers,* fo? competition to be con fined to members of the associating. Fifteen responded to the invitation, and the essays were referred to Mr. W. Croickshank, engi neer-Burveyor for the Marine Board; Mr. Bobert Pollock, superintending engineer for the Bnlli Coal Company ; and Mr. H. B. Dickenson, superintending engineer to the Hunter River New Steam Navigation Com pany, They found the majority of the papers were most creditable to the competitors and the society of which they were members, and tfter due consideration awarded the price and fold medal to a competitor adopting the norn, dc plume of *£bor,' and for practical ? xcellence recommended a special prize to ?Excelsior.' At the meeting of the council of the association on Thursday even ing the letters containing the real names of the writers were opened, and the winner of the gold medal was found to be Me W. Berry, chief engineer of s.B. Emu, South Austnlia, and secretary of the Port A?l?.l?i<fa district ot the institution for nearly five years. ?Excelsior,' to whom a special prize was awarded, is Mr. Bobert Wilson, chief-en cineerof *t?M QncntiQlaTiil finrowimmil: "t??Mnar Otter. It is, we believe, the intention of the executive officers of the society to innrfianc the value and number of the prizes this year to induce further competition. The papers wDI be published shortly in pamphlet form and i?eued with their annual report." Mr, Berry resides at Exeter, Semaphore, and is worthy of congratulation on his success. Our Goolwa correspondent writes under dateC January 10:—"The steamer R?b Kiy arrived here on Saturday, bringiDg SO bales of wool and 45 bales of rabbit skins from one of the Darling stations near Menindie. Too number ot afcin? contained in the bales is

180,000. This is only a portion of what have been sent away from the same station daring (he last aix months. The eking are punted over with a solution to preset m them and carted before being pressed in woolpicks. Vkar (ealiM from Is. B<L to 2a. pet dozsn in loaoon. The station ftorn which this lot wa* ?nipped ii not one of the wont infested runs, so that some idea may be formed of the immwue number of rabbits devastating the country, ?ad the enormous mm spent in trying to deatroy them. Many will naturally wonder how the first rabbits got introduced on the llnmy and in the Biverina district. I think I can enlighten them. Some SO to S5 yean task rabbits were pretty plentiful on Granite and West islands, near Port Viator, where they had been placed by some of the early survey or exploriog ships. Some of the equatters and others on the Murray and laower Darling, when steamers first com menced to trade on the Murray in 1853, came down occasionally as passengers en route to Adrlnidn, cr to enjoy the ozone breezes of the Sontbera Ocean. They aUo enjoyed the sport of r*bbit abootipg on the inland n, and to afford 2j it on their runs many a box fall of ye rabbits was procured and shipped op the river in the steamers Lady Augusta ami Moolgewanke to be turned oat to tweed. Shepherds whose dogs banted the rabbits were often discharged in consequence, or their dogs shot. In years gone by I have often noticed a large hawk flying away with a nbbit in its Ulons from the islands, bat such hawks have been outlawed and shot to protest lambs, Ac, X seldom see thorn now." On the subject of the apotheosis of American ?nude Ledic't newspaper says :—Americans, wad Boston Americans in particular, ought, no doubt, to regard with proud satisfaction the apotheosis of their champion pugilist, John L. Sullivan, by the English people. It is some thing oolotsal and unprecedented. Other illustrious Bostonnns—Oliver Wendell Holmes and James Russell liowell, for instance have recently paid visits to Jjondon ; bat they were, so to Bpeak, men featherweights, and the populace did sot even notice them. Buffalo Bill had a success of cariosity as an alleged typical .American maw on exhibition; bat, after all, his biceps were only of normal develop ment, and he had no record at all as a knocker ont of men in the prize ring. His ephemeral popularity was forgotten as soon as toe great tiatie hero stepped upon Britain's shore. A surging mob of tenor twelve thousand people greeted the redoubtable Sullivan at the Eoaton Station upon his arrival in London, and escorted him in savage triumph to his botd. The Pelican Club nude him an honorary member. His first professional appearance before the British public at St. Jamea'a Hall was an event which* cast com pletely into the shade the Lord Mayor's rival entertainment, the annual banquet at the Guildhall, which had been audaciously set on the same evening. A few minor oelebnties, emeh as Lord Salisbury and Secretary Balfour, were induced to be present at the latter shosr, for form's sake; bat the town was with Sullivan; While the unemployed poor were encamped in Trafalgar-squa?S, most of the male portion of the employed crowded St James's Hall, at fancy prices of admission. The wealthy and titled "toughs" also were there, together with the shining Ifehts of the English prise ring, inclnding the nest opponent and presumable victim of the American champion, Jem Smith. When the Boston gladiator, "in his customary pink tignta. and shirtless," appeared, mwnnnrinfr fmrnflf as "yours truly, John L. Sullivan," +l>—y yrwf *i pandninfiti'"|mn^f H?""?*nr<i When lie **pnt ophiadnte?" against the local pugilist who nad been provided for him to practise upon, the smltrtode bowed down and wor shipped him. What will occur after he hat fciHirkfri out bis f orimrtaMn Kngli?h opponents oan only be surmfred, for he is already a Bieatei public personage than the Prince of Wales or the Grand Old Man himself. Britain loves a bruiser. It is plain that when we want faer to believe that goocLean come out of Yaa fceelacd we must send, not brains nor beauty, fmt a Sullivan, with 16 inch biceps, a diamond belt, and a t?ipp"*^naiy> fihM'iip"%ypi|fr*p'. The members of the City Council paid a visit of inspection to the Dry Greek Labor Risen on Tuesday afternoon. At the Stockade gates they were met fay the sheriff IMc. W. E. Boothby), the superintendent (Me. E. B. 8oott), and the deputy superintendent (Ur. B, SL Edmonds), who conducted them over the ?x(enaive fumisiw forming the Yatala Labor Prison. Naturally enough the office was first raited, and btn some little time was ?penten the "picture gallery" lodgers eon taming portraits of all prisoners who have passed within the prison portals. These proved extremely interesting to the city latter*, as in taming over the records for years past their eyes encountered many a well ? ntnesDbered face. Bach prisoner is first photographed in his ordinary civilian dress ?ad afterwards in prison costume, and tin two portrait* an placed aide by aide in tha album. Beneath is a tersely written history of the prisoner, which famishe* interesting reading to those who affect this style of literature. Passing into tire yard the visitor* saw the whok cf the prisoners, numbering 163, drawn np ii oompanww jutt about to return to their employ ment. They stood thus for a moment or two, and then like well-trained soldiers each cjto. panr snovrd off to xerame work. Continuing on tiie various workshops and cells were visited, witbthecleaalinenof which all wem greatly ?track. The ventilation was generally agreed to be perfect, and despite the beat of theday the cells were cool, and in eaeb>tne air could 1m fett coming in. Toe dark ceU into which refractory piisuueu are at times put was visited, and tke truth of a remark made by the sheriff that "six hours in a place like thw, usually quells the moat troublesome man," was admitted. Passing out cf the gate the quarries and the shops were in spected, and here, as inside, everything was found to be perfectly neat. Retaining by way of the stables, the sheriff pointed out the tmfldi?g which first did service to the State as astockade. ttwatfromtirisbmldingthattsretve pasonen escaped in the early days. A well known old coUbist who has passed away was the superintendent at the time, and as be lived ekwa by the men had to appoint one of their number as sentry to give tbem warning of bis ?pproacb while tney wen making preparations to escape. Whenever the superintenieut came anywhere near the sentry gave the signal, "Lo be oome* with cloud* descending," which was a favorite hymn of the superinten dent's. Next the gasworks came in for in spection. The whole of the gas used in the prison is manufactured there. In each cell a jet is placed, and the men are allowed to read every evening until 8 o'clock. Returning to Hie office, liquids were produced, and his Worship the Mayor (Mr. E. T. Smith, UP.) proposed the health of the sheriff mad t£e officers of the Stockade. In doing so the luvor highly eulogised tteaberiff and the officers for the admirable manner in which (be gaol was maintained. 2be Sheriff, in acknowledging the toast, said that the officers from the highest to the lowest did all in their power to efficiently carry out ttedatiee which devolved on them. He was pleased to see the members of the City Council present, and be wished that other public bodies would attunes visit the institution, for ttwaibyiuchvuita that the public received independent testimony as to the iwwwr in wines, it was conducted. At present the somber o! prisoners was smaller than it had been for ? me time, and this was satisfactory, as ?bowing a decrease of crime. Generally speak ing the discipline of the gaol was well observed, although recently then had been an attempt on the part of a prisoner to file bars and make his escape. The attempt had, however, proved futile, and the sheriff trotted they would have no more such freaks. The party reached the city shortly after 5 o'clock. The Tnaximnm temperature in the mm re corded at the Adelaide Observatory on Tues day was 140?*], and in the shade 100? 2. On enquiry at the Adelaide Hospital on Tuesday we were informed that Mr. S. Morcom was still progressing as favorably as could be expected. Garner's Booms were again well patronised on Tuesday evening, when Hudson's Sorpriss Party repeated their Mi????ig programme and gained the frequent applause of all who were Weare informed by Messrs. Harrold Bros, that the M.M. steamer Galedonien arrived at ?MamJilfs on January 9; and by Mr. T. £ Pngh that the B VLB. Austral left Plymouth for Australia on January 8. We have been shown a fine cactus bloom grown by Mr. F. USler, of Fisher-street, Kent Town. The flower, a white one, measures about nine inches across, and is a eplendid specimen of the variety "Queen of the night." The drama "First Class" was repeated at the Theatre Royal on Tuesday evening, when the audience frequently testified their approval with applause, and the principals were called before the curtain at the close of each act. The same piece will be presented to-njght. On Tuesday evening a sad fatal accident bappened to a child aged 2 years named Her bert William Wttitebesvd, in Bundle-street east. It seems that when the Kensington tram was passing Mr. Hartley's chemist shop the little fellow ran towards the raib, and was knocked down, with the result that the wheels ?f the car passed over his body, causing almost T*asUs*aneous death. An inquest is to be held. "Business is looking up at Thackariaga <says the Broken BM Timet) judging from the aspeetof the township, which is extending and improving at a rapid rate. The local mines ?re all very promising, and we noticed about 250 men awaiting the arrival of the Broken Bill coach a few Sundays ago. A new hotel lias just been opened. It is Urge, well venti lated, has plenty of sleeping and dining accom modation for travellers, and the prices are very moderate." J A social gathering took place at Beach's restau- rant, Hindley street, on Tuesday evening, Mr,

F. J. Eyre, who is about to sever his connec- tion with Messrs. Bickford & Sons, and engage in business, inviting a number of tradesmen to a dinner. Mr. Eyre occupied the chair. After the usual loyal toasts had been honored, Mr. Henry Bickford proposed the health of Mr. Eyre, and wished him success in his new un dertaking. Mr. Eyre suitably responded. Other toasts were given, and a pleasant even ing was spent. The office for the Ute Father O'Brien was recited in the Catholic Church at Kapundaon Monday morning. There were 14 priests pre eent,*and the Very Bey. Dr. Byrne presided. After the office Dr. Byrne celebrated the requiem mass. There was a large congre gation in the church, and the aged parents and several other relatives of the deceased priest were present. At noon the body was taken to Manocra, where it was interred on Tuesday morning. The funeral cortege was a lengthy one, and included the relatives of the deceased and several prominent residents of Kapunda and the neighborhood. The monthly meeting of the Irish National League, South Australian branch, was held on Monday evening At their rooms, Victoria squsre. A very satisfactory report for the year 1887 was read by the secretary. A com munication was received from the secretary of the branch at Pekina enclosing a draft for £30, being the proceeds of a lecture delivered by Mr. Glynn, M.P., on the Irish ques tion. A hearty vote of thanks was passed to the Bey. Mr. Carrie, of Keyneton, Victoria, for his kindness in lecturing on behalf of the Irfch evicted tenants. A sum of about £(0 was realised. The election of officers for 1888 resulted as follows: — President, Mr. P. MeMabon Gljnn, M.P.,; rice-president, Mr. P. Dooley ; treasurer, Mr. P. Healy ; and secretary, Mr. P. Whelan. After some dis cussion as to the celebration of St. Patrick's Daf the meeting adjourned. The monthly meeting of the Benevolent and Strangers' Friend Society was held at the Church Office on Tuesday afternoon. The Hon. H. Scott, M.L.C., presided over a fair attendance. The secretary reported that during the month of December there had been a notable decrease in the want and distress so long manifest in the city. Seventy-eight re applications and four new applications had bees received, as against 160 for the previous month. Thirteen of these had been declined, leaving ?total of 69 which were granted. The total cost amounted to £11 11s. 6d. The financial statement for the month showed that the receipts had amounted to £64165. 5d., and there was a balance on hand of £43 7s. 7d. It was reported that a visit htd been paid by two of the committee to the seven cottages of the society (situated near the Mission Hall, and rented at low rates to the deserving poor), and all were found in a satis factory aiid neat condition. It was resolved that the treasurer and secretary constitute a subcommittee for the general control of affairs connected with the cottages. Complaints have been made to us that the Waterworks Department are in the habit of shotting off the water without giving notice to householders. We are informed that on Mon day they shut off the water in Brougham place without giving notice, and it being wash ing day in many cases caused very serious in convenience was caused to householders. Mr. J. Miller, a member of the Pastoral Board, desires us to state that he is not the writer of the letter, signed "J, Miller," appearing in our Monday's issue on "L*nd and population." He is anxious that this explanation should be made, as the fact that be is in the Government employ precludes him from writing to the press, and the authorship has been attributed to him by many of his friends. The statement in a recent cablegram a* to the satisfactory condition of Russian *inMiren may well caure incredulity, and lead to a sur mise that this covletir de rose acoonnt put for ward is prefatory to an application for a loan on the European markets The Melbourne-<4<7? cays—"Russian revenue is mainly derived from the taxation of the lower rlsnsos. the peasants paying about 85 per cent, of the taxes. The average revenue for the five years, 1881-85, was 708,343.657 roubles (the rouble may be taken as equivalent in value to a florin, or the tenth of a pound sterling) while the average expenditure during the same period was 731,675,729 roubles, making an average yearly deficit of 13,333,072 roubles or in round numbers of a million and a third sterling. This deficit has had to be provided far, and as a necessary consequence the national debt has largely increased, and now assumes the most formidable proportions. In 1870 it stood at 2,003.488,160 roubles, and in 1884 it bad grown to the portentous figure of 5 234,000,000 roubles, or abont £523,000.000, The interest on this indebtedness, owned, it must be remembered, not in the country itself, like French rentes or 3 per oenL consols, bat chiefly abroad, and especially in Germany, was in 1870 85,000.000 roubles, and in 1886 559.645.165 roubles, the in crease being partly due to the increase of the debt, and partly to the depreciation of the currency. One hundred roubles in 1871 were equal in value to £15.*8, whereas in 1885 they were worth only £983, and their value is ?tin diminishing. The commerce of the country with foreign nations is in money value about £60,000,000 sterling annually, both ex port and import, but the first six month* of 1886 showed a fallinfroff of nearly 30 per cent, the exports, as-compared with the correspond ing six months of 18S5. diminishing some £6,000,C00 stetKng, and the imports UUing off from 181,015,C00 rouble! to 174,658.000 Under these circumstances all statements claiming a prosperous Russian budget will be received wrth incredulity." 'With reference to M. Pasteur's suggestion that rabbita might be exterminated by spread ing amongst tbem a disease known as "hen cholera,''the London Tana says:— ** Setaoce concerns itoelf with truth and fact. M. Pasteur having set himself to investigate the problem of a cure for a plague which afflicts Austra lasian colonists, has sought for one by scientific methods. He thinks be has found it, and he has explained its nature. It is hardly his business to decide on the morality of the employment of euca a remedy. They who bold it not to be justifiable have no right to fall foul of the great chemist for publishing the lesson of his laboratory. On the practical moral question anybody is entitled to an opinion, though he be neither a man of science nor an Australian squatter. M. Pasteor'c present proposal is not the first of the tort. A year ago. possibly in consequence of bis experiment*. New Zealand, which has anffftred terribly from the depredations of nbbrts, tried to import some from Earope inoculated with a sickness it was hoped they might disseminate. The strangers died on the journey, and P-neiirfunm who heard it did not mourn over the casualty. It cannot be denied tint the class of procedure vouched for by M. Pasteur as efficacious has an unplea sant semblance of treachery. There is some tiling of the air about it of poisoning wells. JJoubtifss it can be argued that the ten derness is squeamish which would administer shot, strangulation, and strychnine on the amplest ecsle to these troublesome rodents, yet revolts from the among them of an epidemic. Yet the sentiment is pretty oaivczsaL It rased an uproar when a few redundant muceum pigeons were regaled on poisoned grain, and is not likely to be less active and articulate should advantage be taken by graziers at the antipodes of M. Pasteur's recondite enquiries. A rat is hedged by no law or sanctity. Every mans hand is against it. The one question is how to eradicate it in the most direct and ruthless manner. But we doubt very much if an ordinary Tfogliah householder would be inclined to clear his cellars of rats by inveigling one of them into becoming a medium of mortal contagion for its confiding fellows. Before M. Pasteur's plan is applied to Ausbalian rabbit warrens timemight it any rate be allowed for the operation of file experi ment of peopling the infested regions with a fair proportion of the wild animals which keep down the superfluity in Great Britain. Perhaps for a rabbit it might be difficult to decide whether death by the teeth of a weasel or stoat were preferable to hen cholera. At all events, mankind in the former case seems to occupy a rather more respectable position with relation totheresult" A. meeting of the trustee* of the Eight Hours- Celebration Union will be held this evening to con sider alterations of the roles.

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