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OUR LONDON NEWS-LETTER
[From our own Correspondent.] London, Thursday, October 26.
Lord Palmerston, the veteran statesman who has been identified with the official life of this country, with few intervals, for more than 30 years, and who his had a hand in almost every great European event since the passing of
the Reform Bill, is dead. His demise has created scarcely leu sensation. If not so much sorrow, on the Continent— where his name was either a tower of strength or a name of terror—than at home. The event, though not improbable since his severe attack in the spring, which broke down his elastic constitution, came unexpectedly. Since the general election His Lordship kept himself very quiet at Brockett Hall, once the seat of Lord Melbourne, and now the property or Lady Palmerston, his sister. His Inability to carry oat his promise of inaugurating the Working Hen's Industrial Exhibition at Bristol, created some misgiving as to Lord Palmerston's health. Bat His Lordship raUled^and resumed rather too freely those outdoor exercises to which he was so partial. On the morning of Thursday week; however, he caught a severe chill in the open air, during the sudden change in the weather, which brought on a relapse, and dangerous eymptoms, bat which yielded to the strong remedies of his physician. Dr. Protheroe Smith. So mnch did he rally that it was not till the Satnr-."_ day evening that it was thought advisable to convey by telegraph to the Queen at Balmoral the anxiety that ma felt by bis relatives. In the meantime he was visited by Hr. Psget and Dr. Borrowa, in consultation with Dr Protheroe Smith and Dr. Watson, who had been tele graphed for to Penzance, and who arrived early on Honday morning. Up to Tuesday afternoon the marked :improve ment continued, and Lord Palmeraton evinced that cheerful pluck and equanimity which won for him ia his political career the affection as well as theoonldence of his* fellow countrymen. But, alas! it was to be of short duration. Dra. Watson and Protheroe Smith, who were constantly watching by His Lordship's couch, about half-past 3 on Tuesday afternoon saw a retarn of the collapse whioh had given so mnch alarm on the Saturday, and from that time Ull his death he never rallied, bat gradually sank, expiring - at a quarter before lion Wedneslay. the 18th, in the pee- >. aence of TJady Pilmerston, Lord and Lady Stiaftettntry, Mr. and Mrs. William Cowper, lAdy Jocelyn, anil' Sax. Evelyn Ashley. He retained his consciousness till the end. His manner was calm and resigned, and his death was ap parently nnattendei by suffering. Another account says it was from an inflammatory attack: of the bladder that (ha Premier died. His state of mind np to the last remained unclouded, but there came a lassitode over him, whioh pre vented any effort or wish to converse; questions put to him were either disregarded or answered by a look or a sign. A silence, half imposed by weariness, half of his own inclination, possessed him. On Hie day before his death, however, when .in a doze preceding the last change his mind was evidently still amid its old associations; for he was heard to murmur, as in a dream, "The treaty with Belgium! yea,read me that sixth clause again." But at the last a perfectly peaceful demise crowned the long bealthfulness of his life; and they hardly knew in the death-chamber at what exact time he ceased to *a among the living. At that supreme moment those deafest to him were about his bed, with the exception of Lady Palmerston, who—aooordiag to this report—had been gently with drawn. - la a letter to the Vicar of BpmSBV, the Hon. William Cowper says:—" He departed in peace, without pain and with unclouded mini, though he was not able to communi cate what was passing in his mind. We prayed with him, and he appeared to join in it." The Beevrd, in reference to the presence of Lard Shittesbory and other friends at the death-bed of Lord Palmerston, says: --•' It is indeed an un speakable comfort for those who felt an interest in this great statesman that beside his dying bed there watched tho?e who offered op on his behalf earnest prayer, to which he listened almost to the last with a distinct as?ent, and that three days before he expired; but after the cWll which he etnght from fatal exposure to cold, he expressed his firm trust in Jesus Christ as the Saviour of sinners." Lord Palmerston, with his usual indifference to ostenta tion, gave directions in bis will that bis remains should be interred in the cemetery at Bomsey. without the least parade. Bnt the nation would not have it so. Her Majesty, who had received repeated messages at Balmoral while the Premier survived, and afterwards wrote to assure Lady Palmerston of "her heartfelt and deep sympathy with her under this trial," requested that the funeral might be a public one befittl ig the repntatien and eervioes of the deceased statesman, and the obsequies performed in Westminster Abbey. And there, to-morrow, bard by the honored dust of Pitt and Fox and oilier departed statesmen, the remains of the great Englishman will repose. The day will tw, as faras nractioable, a day of general mourning, and the Stock Exchange, when His Lordship was an especial favorite, will be closed. It would be superfluous to refer to the many proofs o universal •orrowwhlch hay? been observed among English men at the loss of their great countryman, and whioh will, no doubt, hereafter find recognition in the erection of some national monument to his memory. Abroad, Lord Palmerston's demise has been spoken of as the departure of, the foremost statesman of Europe. Emperors end kings have sung his requiem, and the oonti nental-press have eulogised his English qualities, and testi fied to We immense influence for 30 yean past over the destinies of Europe. The Swiss Confederation, whose liber ties he BO effectually guarded, have laid a chap let of grati tude on his tomb -Italy, which be helped to make a nation, has through her King and Premier, given ntteranoetoher sorrow-the venerable King of the Belgians. In whose el*; ration to a throne Lord Palmerston took co conspicuous a Dart, shed tears of sorrow at the death of his " old triend pim"-imd the French Minister ot Foreign Affairs has been commissioned to express the feelings of his Imperial master in the foUowinggenerons tribute: ••The Minister of Foreign Affairs to Baron Bande, Charge " d'Affidres of France in London. " Wonilenr—The Emperor and his Government could not without a profound sentiment of regret, witness tbe fiSm the political scene of the eminent states ?^s*?elo?BEngland at this moment deplores. His public opinion in the country wWohh^S^ol tonB s**? with ? o muchdisaactio?. ttwiUecboloudly wherever the English name Is known. S-^iSelves, Monsieur, we have bad in many important riSLmstamS the opportunity of appreciating the high !?riiiie?witti whichXord Palmerston was endowed, and weThaUalways love to remember how much he contributed £ fl^stabUsbment of the relations of confidence and men&Wpwhich. fromthe beginning of tbeSeoond Empires month of Dee. Majesty. He loyally accepted the consequences, placing Wmsetfatove tbe resentments of the nut,.with a freedom ofjudament so mnch the more honorable that at the open ?nFofhircareer he had been mixed np in the ancient strifes - be used bis. influence to bring to the comprehension nf hiTfellow-ciuzens the services rendered to the cause of orde7 in Europe by the events which bad been accomplished ""-Afetfyears afterwsros we found in Lord Palmerston the most decided and certain assistance, when the complica tions in the East ooourred. calling on the two nations to mrite their eflbrts. and led them to contract that alUanoe not less remarkable by the intimate and loyal agreement of tocSbU^ttuJnby&ienobUemnla?onortoe?inies ••Horcould we forget tbe part which belongs to Lord PalmSiSTin tte ??oH?tion ? A**"***Go?nmerce <w,n..inii?<i fim> vein aeo. As First Minister of the Queen hHtadeWhauSS Approved the idea of consolidating tbe rdaaonsof^EnglsiTwtth ns by giving Uiem for a basea iS^£rln.?fl?ritl of material interests. He seconded with a^to^weWtongSaaon of that liberal system, taence for^c^nsSa^T^enceandjdoptedto^yby o>e t^SU'SS I^SS?I^S&^ of two counwes. rael^of^rdPafmerstonwill remain attached to it Xrtt ME^otaS^GovaSmentof His Majesty. You ?^t^^Soni* it the aame time to transmit to tte I&dpd SeiSSSy of State of the Queen, a copy of this deBPatth" 6"teb?O Dra de l/Hcvs " Tn*i*enu>t anything like a sketch of the late Premier", tan* -ndtailliant career, would be like attempting a history rf Europe einoe tbe beginning of the present century. And It would be superfluous, for our newspapers have abounded in long and critical memoirs of the deceased statesman r^rdPalmerston has held office under the Crown £>r tbe lengethened period of 48 years, during which he has served lotorteen Administrations. Ten yean of that time be was Prime Minister of England. He commenoed responsible life as * Lord of the Admiralty, under Lord Portland, in ,W,? He served with Perdval, Liverpool. <£??•??. ?£ Wellington, during the regency; wasl^"^"SSSleanS RarlOrW LordTSelbonrne, and Lord John Basseu,Meanie fA *h?highlit nosiaon nnder the Crown. After the abort D^ffinfitSSon. Lord palmerston became Premier fa i^o ?Ks?Bd closed his career as chieT adviser of Her
Philippe; In watching over tbe Independence of Greece; in directing the Crimean war; and in helping to consolidate the new Kingdom of Italy. Commencing public life a' a Tory, be became with Canning an advocate of Catholic emancipation, and a freetrader with Huslrisson. His lord, chip acquiesced in the Reform Bill—though never much of a reformer—and from henceforth he accepted the policy which hag been pnrsoed by the successive Liberal Administrations which have since almost monopolized tbe Government. Oat of tbe most striking incidents of his life was the Don Paciflco affair, in 1850. which led to a aeries or brilliant de bates. In which His Lordship, though nominally the victor, virtually brought to an end his career as Foreign Minister of England. The Eirl of Derby (then Lord Stanley) first took np the question In the Boose of lords, where he moved a vote of censure on the foreign policy of the Government. The Earl of Aberdeen and Lord Brougham supported the motion. Earl Grey was silent, and the defence of the Foreign Secretary was left to his old rival and antagonist at the Cambridge University election half a century ago-the Marquis of Lansdowne. Their Lordships did not divide until lone after the morning light dawned through the windows of their chambers. Tbe division gave a majority of 37 in favor of Lord Stanley's motion. Mr. Roebuck, then an admirer of Lord Palmerston's foreign policy, asked Lord J. Russell what notice he in tended to take of the advene vote of the House of Peers? Lord John replied that the Government meant to do nothing. The Whig Premier then, bnrsting ont into a warm and eloquent tribute of admiration for his colleague, reminded ihe House of the thoroughly English and patriotic cbiracter ot Lord Palmerston's foreign policy. " My nobl' friend," he said." is not tbe Minister of France —he is net the Minister of Austria-he is not the Minister of Russia--but he is tbe Minister of Engiaud." The House burst into a deafening cheer, and Mr. Koebuck announced that be would sive the House of Commons an op portunity of declaring whether they agreed with, or dissented from, tbe views of the Upper House, for he would move a counter resolution to that of the lords, amounting to a vote of confidence in the Government with respect to their foreign policy. Tbe debate assumed a most exciting character, lrom the knowledge that Sir K. Peel and his friends in the Lower House, who bad given a general support to tbe Whig Government, intended to follow Lord Aberdeen in protesting against Lord Palmerston's foreign policy, and lasted four nights. The effect of the first night's debate was unfavorable to tbe Government, for Sir James Graham, in a most damaging speech, took the question out of tbe narrow issue of Greece, and reviewed the whole foreign policy of Lord Palmerston. As it was 1 o'clock when Sir J. Graham resumed his seat, the debate was adjourned. It was renewed on tbe following night (Tuesday. June 25 ) At a quarter to 10 o'clock—an early hour for a Minister—the rumor was brought into Bellamy's, and spread through the lobbies that "Palmerston was up!" There was an imme diate rush of members into tbe House, and in a iew minutes tbe body of the House and the side galleries were thronged with representatives of tbe peoplp. •? The annals of the English Parliament are rich in great names and great occasions, yet Lord Palmerston's defence of bis foreign policy was, perhaps, the greatest Parliamen tary event of our time, and his greatest enemies admitted that Lord Palmerston was equal to the occasion. In a speech of nearly five hours' duration—" that speech," said Sir K, Peel, in a tone of affectionate admiration. " which made us all so proud of him!"—the noble Viscount left no material accusation against him unnoticed ; yet so concise was bis style, and so pregnant his matter, that he did not seem to his hearers to employ one unnecessary word. The attention of tbat crowded House never once flagged. The noble Viscount resumed bis seat amid deafening and long sustained cheering, and every one admitted that for eloquence, copiousness, and clearness, his speech has been one of the greatest triumphs of Parliamentary debate which that generation had witnessed. Mr. Roebuck's motion was carried on the Friday night following by a majority of forty-six in favor of Lord Palmerston. Scarcely less interesting were the ctrcumstaneea which led to bis retirement—dismissal from Lord Russell's Minis try in December, 1851, in consequence of his pronouncing in 'avor of Louis Napoleon, of his own authority, when he aa^nmed the Dictatorship of France. When Parliament met, it appeared from the Ministerial explanations that so far back as August, 1850. while Lord Palmerston was in the fall glow of his Parliamentary triumph, the highest personage in We realm was conveying her Royal displeasure to her Foreign Minister. This curious State paper, dated August, IS50, pnrposts to be a formal memorandum relative to tbe transaction of business be tween tbe Crown and the -State :— " Tbe Queen requires, first, that Lord Palmerston will distinctly state what he proposes In a given case in order that tbe Queen may know as distinctly to what she is giving ber Koyal sanction; secondly, having once given her sanction to a measure, that it be not arbitrarily altered or modified by the Minister. Such an act she most consider fig failing in sincerity to the Crown, and Justly to be visited by the exercise of her constitutional right of dismissing that Minister. She expects to be kept informed of what passes between him and the Foreign Minister before impor tant decisions are taken based upon that intercourse ; to receive the foreign despatches in good time; and to have tbe drafts for her approval sent to her in sufficient time to make herself acquainted with their 'contents before they must be sent off. Tbe Qneen thinks it best that Lord John Bnssell show this letter to Lord Palmerstou." Lord Palmerston did not resent this severe rebuke from the Sovereign, but wrote to Lord J. Russell to say, " I have taken a copy of this memorandum of the Queen, and will not fail to attend to the directions which it contains." But Lord Palmerston did resent bis superior's part in tbe affair, and in a few months tbe Russell Cabinet was defeated by ais instrumentality on a Militia Pill, and resigned. His Lordship could not be left out of the Aberdeen Coalition Ministry, which, after a brief Derby Administration, suc ceeded to power, but the post in which his chief distinction bad been obtained was assigned to Lord Clarendon. And while tbe Russian war was raging, and our army was the victim of " horrible and heartrending " sufferings. Lord Palmerston wu plodding at the Home Office, ae if there were no inch thing as foreign politics, and as if smoke nuisances and eewer nuisances were the only great themes of Ministerial anxiety. He dilated upon manure, and In formed tbe world that dirt was only " a good thing in the wrong place " be discussed the subject of the cholera, and informed the English public that cleanliness is a more certain preventive than prayer. His Lordship upon many occasions gave proof that such religion ae he had was cer tainly nut of the " orthodox'' type. When Lord Aberdeen was compelled to resign, the country felt that it wanted for Its leader an energetic states man of simple definite aims and firm will. Everybody saw in Lord Palmerston an able administrator, and a statesman who always knew his own mind. He became Premier—an office to which be may be eatd to .have been called by the public voice—and tbe nation grew calmer as it saw a cheerfnl, self-possessed, business-like man at the bead of ita sSsirs. The war was brought to a termination, which wag generally accepted as successful, and the Peace of Paris Aligned in 1856—a result which was probably facilitated i>y Lord Palmeraton'e inclination towards Louis Napoleon, Which four years earlier had been a cause of difficulty. In 1657 tbe suppression of the great Indian mutiny called for the further exercipe of his administrative talents. In the flame year Lord Palmerston'n popularity was put to the test by an adverse vote of the House of Commons. A large number of Englishmen blamed bis readiness to plunge the country in little wars, and Mr. Cobden having moved a vote of censare on bis Government on account of the war which be commenced in China upon the seizure of tbe lorcha Arrow, the motion was carried by a majority of 16 votes. Lord John Russell, Mr. Gladstone, and Sir James Graham joining in the condemnation. Lord Palmerston at once appealed to the country, and the result showed that if there were many people wbo blamed tbe China war, there were a great many more who considered teat the advantage of maintaining- Lord Palmerston in power far outweighed any consideration drawn from our policy in China. The Premier bad a large majority in the Dew Pariisment.fand it must be recorded that in the elation ot eueceea be sometimes forgot the respect due to eminent opponents. His manner awakened new antagonisms, and in February. 1858. the new House of Commons adopted an amendment to tbe Conspiracy BUI, which was irreality a vote of censure on the Government. The resource of a dissolution was not this time available, and Lord Palmer- Eton resigned. The next year was tbat of tbe war in Italy, and the weakness of Lord Derby's Ministry was signally a it ested by the feeling of uneasiness which spread through the country. There wai a general belfef that England was not ?aie,;and Lord Palmerston was again called for. He took office in Jnne, 1859, forming the administration which now exists. Lord Palmerston's subsequent oaceer; his lukewarm sup port of Earl Russell's Reform BiU, which fell, through Parliamentary apathy -. his energetic support of national defences after tbe annexation or Savoy. Nice, to France, which brought down upon him tbe attacks of Cobden and Bright; his acquiescence in Gladstone's brilliant financial measues, and bis failure to turn Prussia "and Austria from their schemes of aggrandisement at the expense of Den mark, are matters of recent history. Aiming to become the Minister of the moderately Conservative part of tbe nation, be was supported by a large section of the Opposi tion, who refused to be parties to any attempt to replace him, and settled down to tbe conclusion that he was the best Premier they could have. During the last session His Lordship's vigorous constitution began visibly to give way, and his address to the electors of Tjverton, after the dissolution, indicated a conviction that in the future Government of this country he was destined to take but little part. It was, in fact, rather a Gladstone than s Palmerston Parliament which was elected in July. Perhaps no English statesman has ever so completely reflected'the prominent national qualities—none, certainly, has combined in such happy proportion an intense vitality, which imparted the freshness of youth to the decline of a life prolonged beyond the usual span; a versatility and a tact equal to eve?y emergency, and a fund of humor ever ready to find expression at the righ t moment. A wholesome nature which might have been expected to become impatient as the. intimities of age increased, was kept for many a long year In a healthy state by a love of outdoor life, active exercise, tbe most abstemious habits and scrupulous observance of nature's laws. Lord Palmerston's aristocratic tendencies found no expression in his personal bearing. In the House of Commons he was accessible, and bad a good word for every one; something- fitting and genial was always at com mand. When most oppressed with the cares of State, the Prime Minister would rarely pass even the doorkeepers of the House without a friendly salutation or a good-natured remark. In the tea-room, where be often adjourned when other members were dining, be was want to be the gayest and most affable of the party, and there he would often bandy jukes with Mr. Cobden. though perchance not many days bad elapsed since big policy had been roughly as sailed by the great Freetrade leader. Lord Palmerston has left no issne. One nephew and three nieces are Ms nearest relatives, with the exception of his honored widow and. ber son by a former marriage, tbe Hon. W. Cowper, President of the Board of Works. He is caid to have paid his addresses to a lady in early life, and to have been rejected, but when the game lady, then the widowed Countess Cowper, accepted and married him at the age of 66, she found his heart sound as an apple, and his front unscarreil by the sorrows of a rejected lover. No two natures conld be more akin, and noonehssmore efficiently and charmingly discharged the responsibilities of wife of a Prime Minister, and dispensed the hospitalities of his house than Lady Palmerston. Of late years his noble relative, the Earl of Shaftesbury, was among bis most intimate friends, and to him Lord Palmerston was wont to resort for counsel in all bis many cuWEh appointments. The death of Lord Palmerston is probably the beginning of a new epoch In oar political history. Earl Russell, his friend, colleague, and occasional rival, is now Prime Minister of England. His Lordship baa neither the vigor, flexibility, nor popular manners of bis predecessor. Bat he was the only possible statesman, whom the Queen, In the exercise ofberprerogatire could call upon to form a Government and he has accepted the task. His colleagues have given him their hearty co-operation, and It is semi-officially an nounced that " Lord Russell's Ministry will be as nearly as possible. Lord Palmeraton'e Ministry, minus Lord Palmer ?ton." The Earl of Clarendon, Foreign Secretary under the Lord Aberdeen, will a;ain resume that important post. His diplomatic experience ig great, but he lacks those mas culine qualities which are necessary to a Foreign Minister. Who will succeed him as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan caster does not yet appear. Perhaps he will nominally bold the office till tbe new Parliament meets. There will still be eight Secretaries of State in the Lords and seven in the Commons—a serious disadvantage to a Liberal Government, tbe more so as the dew Premier is also a member of tbe Upper House. Mr. Gladstone, however, as tbe leader of the Bouse of Com-: mons. became virtually tbe controlling power in the Minis try, and if, as is expected. Earl Russell's Government should propose a Reform Sill, it will devolve upon the right hon. gentleman- to introduce It. But spite of the great ability of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Earl BusseU's experience and weight, the new Liberal Cabinet tn not a look of durability. It is strongest in tbe House, where It can produce the least impression—weakest in the Chamber, where popular influences are most felt. Mr. Gladstone' will be inadequately supported on the Treasury bench, at a time when the truce between the Ministerial benches and the Opposition has come to an end by Lord Palmerston's decease. Sir George Grey's health IB delicate; Sir Charles Wood is not listened to; Mr. Cardwell. though a. diligent administrator, is not an authoritative statesman - Mr. Gibson wants calibre; and Mr. VUliers ig only at home in hie own department. New blood it naeded In the Government, and it Is not easy to say where It is to be found. Mr. Lowe, with hb Conservatism, is out of tbe question; Mr. Horsman, Is disabled by like proolivitia, and the leading Radicals who are good debaters lack official experience, except Mr. Staosfeld- The Times has begun to go Into opposition to Lori Russell's Government. It has paraded and exagge rated all His Lordship's faults, and would fain have pre sented him forming m Adminiitntloa. Hot taring sac
cetded. It recollects that we have to settle attain with America to our mutual satisfaction. Lord Russell has bii hand In it. That is the main, perhaps the only reason,. why he should be Premier. Viewed in this light he is a necessity. Like medicine, the nation most take him, even though it makes a wry race. In the face of such an emer gency there was no possible choice bat to see the Govern- j ment handed over by the simple law of official succession to the man next in power, and actually at the wheel. If Lord Russell anooeeds. he will show that he has a claim to the further confidence of hit countrymen. If he fails' he may or may not be charitably judged bnt he will cease to be Premier. The difficulty here adverted to arises out of the voluminous correspondence between Earl Russell and Mr. Adams, rela tive to the Confederate cruisers, whioh has been published during toe present month. This diplomatic war extends over a wide surface, bat the Alabama oaae is the marrow of it Mr. Adams complains that although the British Govern ment were duly and repeatedly informed of the destination of that vessel, she was allowed to depart on her warlike mission, and that" although Her Majesty's officers at Liver pool were pledged to keep faithful watch over the Alabama, and report any further information they might obtain, no one of them seems to have been disposed to pay the smallest attention to any representations or any evidence offered by him or any agent of the United States, even so far as to stimulate his own action in any way whatever." Mr. Adams therefore reaffirms the ?'validity of the claims of bis Government for ail the damage done by this vessel daring her career, and asks reparation therefor.' Earl Russell, in his reply, makes the best of a not very strong case. He observes a discreet silenoe as to the culpable negligence of the Liverpool Custom-House officials in stopping the Alabama, shows that action was being taken by the British Government for her detention, upon evidence furnished by Mr. Adams, though it is doubtful "whether it would have been found sufficient to procure a conviction from a Jury, or even a charge in favor of condemnation of the vessel from a Judge.'' Bat on the very morning of the day when the law officers of the Crown reported on the case, "the Alabama was taken to sea on the false pretence of a trial trp."; The whole question, therefore, resolves itself. His Lordship contends, into this—" whether the British Government faithfully and conscientiously performed their duties as neutrals, or whether they, from any motives,' whatever, were guilty of a grave neglect of those duties." Such a matter, he remarks, could not be referred to " any form of abitra tion," as suggested by Mr. Adams. "Her Majesty's Government," says His Lordship, "are sole guardians of their own honor. Fbey cannot admit that they have acted with bad faith in maintaining the neutrality the professed The law officers of the Crown must be held to be better interpreters of a British statute than any foreign Govern ment can be presumed to be. Her Majesty's Government most therefore decline either to make reparation and compensation for the captures made by the Alabama, or to refer the question to any foreign State." At the same time Earl Russell shows that in the early part of the present century the United States refused compensa tion to Spain and Portugal for losses which their merchants sustained by vessels fitted out in the ports of the Union while its Government was at peace with those countries, on the gronnd, as stated by th<£then Secretary of State, that "the Government of the United States having used all the means in its power to prevent the fitting out and arming of vessels in their ports to cruise against any nation with whom they are at peace, and having faithfully carried into execu tion the laws enacted to preserve inviolate the neutral and pacific obligations of this Union cannot consider itself bound to indemnify individual foreigners for losses by capture over which the United States have neither control nor jurisdic tion. For such events no nation can in principle, nor does in practice, hold itself responsible." But, in respect to this precedent, Mr. Adams argues that the American Govern ment had previously amended and made more stringent their internal laws on the subject; while our Government in the recent war refused to foliow the same coarse, and decided to rely on existing statutes. Still the fact remains that his Government did refuse compensation for injuries sustained to a foreign Government by the acts of American citizens in violation of the law. The present poeiUon of tha question is this—that our Ministers decline " either to made reparation and compensa tion for the captures made by the Alabama, or to refer the qnestion to any Foreign State;" but they are, " ready to consent to the appointment of a Commission to which shall be referred all claims arising daring the late civil war, which the two Powers shall agree to refer to the Commis sioners." Mr. Adams does not hold oat much prospect of the acceptance of this proposal, which could, be says, only be accepted "at the risk of a charge of disavowing the views of constitutional or international law entertained by my Government in former times." The correspondence breathes a spirit of courtesy and mo deration throughout, bnt Earl Russell's cart refusal to en tertain the question of arbitration, whether wise or not, will doubtless prodnce much excitement and angry feeling in America. Mr. Seward was, .according to the last accounts, diligently engaged in collecting the details of evi dence of losses sustained through the Alabama, and the other Confederate cruisers, and evidently intends to press the matter if the President will allow him- Earl Rnssell says that lor the British Government to con sent to arbitration in the Alabama case would " endanger the position of neutrals in all future wars." Mr. Adams meets this argument by arguments which are undoubtedly of great weight He says —"If it be once fairly established as s principle of the international code, that a neutral Power is the sole judge of the degree to which it has done its doty nnder a code of Its own ?"?"";. for the prevention of gross and flagrant ontrage?, initiated in its own ports by the agents of one belligerent in co-operation with numbers of its own subjects, and perpetrated upon the commerce of the other on the high seas; if it be conceded that the neutral, upon reclamation made for the injuries thus done by reason of the manifest inefficacy of its means of repres sion, which it has at all times the power to improve at will, can deliberately decline to respond to any each appeal, fall back upon the little that It has attempted as an excuse, and thenceforward claim with justice to be released from the inevitable consequence that most ensue from its inaction, then it mast surely follow that the only competition between neutral Powers hereafter will be, not whioh shall do the moat, but which shall d? the least, to fulfil its obligations of interdiction of the industry and enterprise of its own people in promoting the conflicts that take place between bellige rents on the ocean." Congresses are still the order of the day. We have had daring the month the Social Science Congress Meeting at Sheffield, under the presidency of the venerable Lord Brougham: the Church Congress at Norwich; toe Baptist Union at Bradford; and the Congregational Union at Bristol. The Sheffield meeting was not very remarkable ex cept for the exposure made of some of the trades of the town, in which children are employed, to the destruction of their health and morals. Mr. Hughes, M. P., courageously denounced tbe stupid combinations of Sheffield operatives urainst tbe introduction of machinery ; and Mr. Fawcett, M.P? met a number of representative workmen, and pro laced a good effect by showing the folly of such opposition. Lord Brougham, in his opening address, was able to apeak of the immense demand for cheap literature ; of tbe wide extension of working men's dabs; of the gratifying in crease of the co-operation movement, which now embraces more than 500 societies scattered over the country, doing business at the rate of millions per annum; and of the popularity of tbe Post-Office Savings Banks, with their deposits at the present time of nearly six millions, in sums mostly under £3. Sir Maunockjee Cursetjee, a Parsee merchant of Bombay, gave much interesting information at one of the sectional meetings, relative to tbe great spread of education among the Hindoos, which was undermining their superstition, and to tbe gradual elevation which is taking place in the condi tion of the female sex. Dr. Lankester. the Middlesex Coro ner, contributes a valvnable paper on the origin and nature of those zymotic or pneamatic diseases which carry off annually upwards of 100.000 of our population, and which have their most virulent types In small-pox. He sees in the success of vaccination in disarming this deadly disease a beacon of hope that we may be able to overcome the poisons —cholera and cattle plague included—whioh attack men and animals. In tbe Church Congress at Norwich, whioh was attended by aue or two Bishops, and several dignitaries of the Esta blisment, (he papers and discussions took a wide range, embracing the expediency of a conscience clause in reference to national schools—which was generally condemned—the formation of a new Court of Appeal in ecclesiastical matters', on which there was hopeless diversity of view ; the uses of oatbedral *nd capitular bodies; the duties of the Church towards foreign Christians, the home popula tion and the heathen ; the relations of science and religion; tbe preaching of the present day; and the Irish Cborcb, which it was of conrse the general opinion ought to be pre served intact Archdeacon Denison said there was a dis position creeping into the English Church to abandon the Irish Church, bnt he would never give in to it. Tbe Baptist Union meetings, which were on the whole successful, and attended by some 400 ministers and dele gates, were presided over by the Rev. Dr." Aligns, of Begent's Park College, who delivered an address on the extent and direction in which Christians could co-operate, and tbe means of making the ministry more efficient. It appears from a report presented that there are 2.268 Baptist Churches in England and Wales, most of which are, how ever, very email. There was an interesting discussion on the policy of a higher education for the ministers of tbe denomination, and the value of associated efforts: and Mr. Spurgesn wound up the session by preaching in St. George's Hall to an overflowing audience. Che Metropolitan Taber nacle pastor has hitherto held aloof from the Union, snd his adhesion is a great gain to the body. The Chairman of the Congregational Union for the present year is the Rev. David Thomas, B.A., of Bristol, in which aty that body is now holding its autumnal session. His inaugural address dealt with the responsibility of Christian parents. Mr. Btnney was present. So also was the Bev. J. U. Poore, who was one of the speakers at a crowded evening meeting, and gave an account of the colonial miuions of the Union. The Rev. Newman Hall will be the Chairman for the coming year. I am happy to record that the fears of a general extension of the Rinderpest among our flocks, as well as herds, nave not been realized. The case detailed by Professor Symonds seems to have been an isolated one. At all events a number of sheep were introduced Into the Sanatorium of Edinburgh where diseased cattle were being treated, and after being in contact with the infected animals for several days were none the worse for passing through the ordeal. But tbe cattle murrain continues and spreads. It has not. happily, reached Ireland, Dut prevails in every part of Great Britain, though statistics on the subject are very meagre. Thou"h no decided specific against this fatal disease has yet been discovered, it seems now to be more amenable to general treatment, and the barbarous practice of wholesale slaugh tering Is, spite of Professor Gamgee falling Into disfavor. The Commission appointed by Government to collect infor mation and devise a remedy for the plague is hard at work. It is said that they are so impressed with tbe danger that impends over the whole of our cattle that Parliament will be called together earlier to devise summary means for pre venting the spread of the contagion. But the report is pro bably unfounded. Meanwhile, Mr. Caird, who has been stndying the disease in Holland, where it has prevailed for two month's, sends to the Times the result of his observations. He states that up to the last official statement 3,3\9 animals bad been attacked, of which L, 169 died, 67* were slaughtered, 717 recovered, and the remainder were under treatment. In proportion to the whole number of cattle in the country, less than three in every l,?oo have yet been attacked by tha disease, and not two in 1,000 have perished. Many cures have been effected. No certain specific has been discovered. bat a rational treatment, according to varying symptoms, is practised, with warm clothing and nourishing drinks to sustain the strength. The result of this treatment has been that 25 per cent, have recovered. The cows return to milking con dition ; and there has been no instance of an animal be coming a second time affected. The most successful treat ment is said to have been by homoeopathy. This has been practised by (wo Belgian practitioners, who volunteered their services to the Dutch Government By them 50 per cent, of the animals which were sick had been cured, and out of 148 sound animals treated by them with preventive medicines, and placed in contact with diseased cattle, not more than four had taken tbe disease. These gentlemen are at this moment continuing their practice, and I wasi assured, that should it prove equally successful on a week's further trlall the results would be made public for the general benefit. The cholera is among us, though not in an epidemec form, and the drenching rains and colder weather will, doubtless, drive the scourge from our shores, or compel it to hide innocuous till next spring at least At the sugges tion of the French Government an international confer ence will shortly be held at Constantinople to investigate the origin, tbe conditions whioh appear to regulate the progress of the cholera, and tbe best means of defending Europe tram, its ravages, without attempting to control the free action or any Government This enquiry promises to yield valuable results. Tbe cholera on this occasion does not seem to have oome from India, where it has originally been generated, if indeed it Is ever absent, bnt was produced among the pil grims to Mecca, on the west coast of Arabia, and was car ried to Alexandria from the Port of Djedda, where they are landed and shipped. For the most part, in its European progress, it has been confined to the seaports, or towns close to the coast, and connected with tbe sea by rivers. Bat there nave lately been rn?rfr?H exception! to this role. Both Madrid and Paris have been attacked, and some other places far away inland. Tbe Times notices some incidents that would indicate that the atmosphere was one vehicle of in fection. Five miles from Gibraltar stands the little town of San Rogue, and San Koque and Gibralta were abruptly smitten by the plagne not only on tbe some day, bat also at the same moment. At Gibraltar it was a sudden access of tbe malady; at San Koque a first outbreak. At a small town near Toulon the plague fell upon the place in tbe night, and thirty cases occurred simultaneously between evening and morning. At Constantinople it wai observed that wnilB the cholera wag raging all the seagulls, which used to
flit over the waters of the Bosphonu, deserted the plan nor did they reappear till the disease had departed and tt atmosphere become pnre onee more. For these many months no incident baa occurred fraogt with greater remits for Europe and its international polio than Count Bismark's visit to Biarritz on the heels of th GaBteln Convention, It is true, that ML Dronyn d'ljtray energetically protested against that temporary arrangement but it is believed that the French Foreign Minister wa snubbed by Us Imperial master for bis outspoken langugt lint the Count's visit to Biarritz was connected with po litlcal or "pending " questions, is ostentatiously avowed b] his Berlin organ, and it has been followed by explicltstats menu in our own papers, that lbe annexation of Settles wi| and SolBtein to Prussia has actually been arranged—Anstrii receiving a.pecuniary indemnity, and France standinj tacitly on one side. The provisional state of things in th< Northern Duchies Is injurious to Prussia In many ways most of all. because it weakens the royal authority at a tlmi when it is In confliot with the Legislature. But the probabli act of spoliation invokes consequences more important thai the annexation of :Nice to France with baueuburg and thi Duchies. Prussia will never be satisfied without obtaining a portion of Hanover, so as make her territorj conterminons. In that case the Free City of Hamburg wil be encircled by the great Northern Power of Germany, which requires so admirable a port for its own purposes, and will spare no effort to absorb it. From the course par sued in respect to a more southern Free City, that of Frank fort, we see how little Prussia is disposed to respect the Independence of these sovereign States. Then comes the question—What is the price of French connivance ? Is the Emperor's policy so disinterested as the Berlin semi-offieial organ gives out? Why should he be so anxious to serve Prussia, unless he has also bis own ends to answer, viz., a rectification or the French frontier towards the Rhine ? It does not follow that Prussian concessions in the way of territory should be large, but whatever may be granted to France will tend greatly to weaken Belgium, who would have her powerful "neighbors on the east as well as the western and southern frontier. It seemg probable that the transaction arranged at Biarritz will be the great feature of European politics during the coming year. While the Moniteur is reminding the rope that the letter of the Franco-Italian Convention will hs strictly carried out, and the electors of Italy are returning an overwhelming- majority to support the Govern ment against the priest party. His Holiness is perplexed with internal difficulties. Perhaps his mOBt devoted adherent is HonBignor de lierode. Cardinal War Minister. If zeal could save the Papacy it would be secure. Bnt the IrapetuOusDetferodehas squandered so much money, including his private means, in providing for the temporal defence of the Vatican, that the exchequer fs beggared, and there are serious irregularities in the accounts oy reason of the peculations of subordinates more interested in their own pockets than the Papal power. He wanted more money for new recruits for the resuscitated army, but was refused. The result has been the War Minister has fallen from his hUrb estate, in this wise according to one aooount: —M. de Merode having spoken to the Pope about a journey to Belgium, Car dinal Antonelll went at once to the house of the prelate, an<l signified to him that he had the Pope's permission to depart. The affected readiness, and the form of this authorization caused M. de Merode to reflect, and he said he had changed his mind. Ihe Cardinal t"ld him he had better see the Pope himself. De Merode went to the Vatican and found ihe Pope very angry. " If you do not wish to go to Belgium," said the Pope, "send In your resignation." "I shall not resign," replied M-de Merode, "but your Holiness may dismiss me if you wish." The Pope was very excited, and said "Well, we Khali see." tt.de Merode said, "1 may have committed faults, bnt no one has more at heart the service of yonr Ho liness " "Then." said the Pope, "prove (t by yourobedi dience;" and thereupon. In a very cold manner, he showed him out of the room. M. de Merode has got three months 1 leave of absence, which U equivalent to dismissal, and Cardinal Antonelli will now be able to resume the negoti ations with the King of Italy, which will doubtless sooner or later produce some tangible result. Gratifying news on'tbe whole oomes from America, and thereisaprogpeot that the ravages of the civil war and its bitterness of feeling will be healed much sooner than could have been expected. All the Federal troops are being withdrawn from the South, except the colored regiments, which are to garrison the lorta. and the late rebellious States are to be allowed to raise a militia for local pur poses. They are all now holding their reconstruction con ventions, and all have acted alike in voting themselves back into the Onion, Even South Carolina, the focus of secession and the hot-bed of slavery propogandism, has abolished slavery, and a recent delegation from the State to the Pre sident avowed their entire confidence In his policy. They are all going to pass laws for the protection of the emancipated negroes, bnt Alabama Is the only State which bag consented to allow colored people to give evi dence in Courts of law. though perhaps the others will eventually follow that good Southern men were coming North, with money in their hands/too, to buy goods and pay old debts. Northern men were going South to bny estates and develope the resonrces of that fertile region, and while laborers were also proceeding thither to show the negroes bytheir example how to work. A great and silent social revolution is going on, with which President Johnson 1 ?8 so well pleased that he dispenses his pardons on all sides Viee-President Stephens of "corner-stone" notoriety has been released, and it is evident that Jefferson Davis himself will be ere long set free. - We are a wonderful people." j boast the Yankees, and truly they must be, for in no other ' country in the world could the effects of a gigantic and desolating civil war be so soon in process of removal. In th? current number of the British Quarterly Review, the Venerable Dr. Vaughan, now TO years of age. lately returned from a mission to the United States, announces his retirement from the post of editor of that influential organ of Con^regationaiists. It was started by him 21 years ago, and was. as he says, " the child of his brain and bis heart." The Reman has certainly done much, to diffase a high literary taste among dissenters. It is likely that some snbstanCM recognition will ere long be made of Dr. Vaughau's services to Nonconformist literature, and his powerful advocacy of civil and religions freedom. His mantle has fallen on the Bev. Henry Allen, of Islington, late Chairman of the Congregational Union, and the Rev H. B. Reynolds. late of Iieeds, and now Principal of Chesbnnt College—both gentlemen well-qualified, by*their literary culture and theological erudition, to sustain the reputation ol the British Quarterly.