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DRAWBACKS.: FROM TUE MONITOR. THE drawback allowed on the exportation of certain merchandise on which duty has been. paid, often induces dishonest attempts in the moo ther-country to obtain from government, by means of false entr;es at the Custom-house, a greater sum of money as drawback, than is due for the goods entered for exportation. A case of this. sort occurred last year at Liverpool, with some goods shipped to this colony, and occasioned no little inconvenience to the consignee arid to the purchaser of the goods in question; as the bear ing of our Custom-house officers in the busi ness, seems to imply, that the purchaser here of goods fraudulently entered outwards in England, is liable for the fraud so for as to lose the goods purchased. The following are the particulars of the case alluded to :-A shipment of nearly. one thousand boxes of window glass was entered outwards for Sydney.at the Liverpool Custom house; but the quantity specified as the contents of each package, was just double the actual quantity ; consequently, as the fraud was not immediately discovered, the shipper managed to. receive double the amount of drawback that was really due to him, being double the amount of the duty government had in the first place re ceived from the manufacturer, on whom the duty is levied. Immediately on the discovery of the fraud, which was not made till some time after the ship had sailed, the shipper was prosecuted and convicted, fined, and imprisoned, At the same time, the requisite prrticulars were for, warded to the Custom-house officers here, and they were directed to the consignee, with strict orders, it is said, to seize the property in question wherever it should be found. The consignee admitted having received the goods, and at the same time satisfactorily showed, that he had al ready remitted the proceeds of the sale to the party shipping. The name of the party here purt.hasing, to.vever, having been given, the Custom-house officers proceeded to that gentle man's stores, and found the goods they were inr search of. Mr. Cooper, the Comptroller, in formed the.purchaser, that he might consider the goods as seized by governflent; but -he being

slow of heart to believe any thing so marvellous, refused to consider any right of the sort, and claimed the right of taking legal opinion, which was granted. Mr Cooper was informed the next time he made his appearance, that the goods in question would only be surrendered to force, .for which those who made use of it must themselves be responsible. On this declaration, Mlr.Cooper left the unpleasant task to Mr. Jef frey, and. Mr. Jeffrey, after exercising a little stra tegy in debate, peremptorily ordered off his subs; since which. time nothing has been heard of. Mr. Cooper, Mr. Jeffrey,. or the posse comitatus as sembled for the occasion. Areference to the law of the case will, unless the English Commissioners of Excise havejuris diction in New South Wales, show, that the claim of the Comptroller is not well-founded: ,If upon the examination of any goods or any pack. age specified in such notice(entry outwards) as afore said, by any officer of excise, any such goods or packages shall be found to vary fron-the descriptions thereof respectively contained in such notice, so that a higher or greater sum of money'than of right due, shall have been claimed, or would according to such description, in case siich discovery or detection had not been made, have beeri, on the eiportation of such goods or packages respectively, deemed payable as a drawback of excise in'respect thereof, or His Majesty in any respect defrauded therein, all such goods or packages, and the goods contained therein respectively shall-be forfeited, and shall and may be seized by any officer of excise; and. the person who.shall have entered the same for exportation, knowing.. thereof, shall- over and above all other penalties, forfeit for each such offence, treble the value.of such goods, including the duties paid or payable thereon, or the sum of 1001. for each such package at the election of the Commissioners of Excise, to be signified in and by the information to be filed or exhibited for the re covery thereof. Six hours notice previous to shipment are required to afford time to ascertain whether the quantity and quality of the goods entered out wards, agree with. the description given in the entry; and the Customs having neglected the necessary -examination, it would be absurd in deed to make a purchaser responsible, who is 16,000 miles from the port where. the fraud was perpetrated. Nevertheless, had the goods been in the hands of the consignee, and fairly on the account of the shipper, there could have been no great .objection to the seizure, excepting that it was not warranted by law. THE AusTRALIAN SCHOOL SOCIETY. - We are happy to learn, that His Excellency, Sir George Gipps has cheerfully consented to become the pa. tron of this valuable institution. Founded on the principles of the British and Foreign School Society, -whosesystem of teaching is the admiration of all who witness it,-it shows a middle course between sectarian exclusiveness on the one hand, and the almost licentious latitudinarianism of the Irish System on the other. A zchoolmaster and mistress, both trained in the Parent Society's Central School in Borough Road, have recently arrived in the colony, having been sent out under the authority and patronage of the Secretary of State. They are a respectable mar ried pair, of the name of Hance. TaH BISHOP's SEAT -The Herald of yesterday, tells us that he understands that Bishop Broughton, while in London, requested that he might not have a seat in the new Council. If so, it shows that the Right Reverend gentleman had a more correct sense of his relation to the State, and of his-proper business as a Christian pastor, than we had given him credit for; and we must also add, that it proves still more clearly, to.our satisfaction, that since his accession to his supposed episcopal dignity, he has lost ground in point of simplicity and self.possession; for when, on his return to the colony, Sir Richard'Bourke refused him a seat in Council, the Bishop considered it a great hardship, inasmuch as Lord Glenelg had, ihe said, promised him that rank. This we know for a fact,-and' we are much mistaken in Dr. B.'s disposi tion, if the loss of his legislative rank and influence do not cause him much mental disquietude. The Herald's use of the words, the " proper proposition" of the Church. of England, calls for no further re mark from us than this-that hier proper position is precisely the thing in the use and enjoyment of wvhich we are desirous of seeing her secured; and that the only cause of our gratification in seeing her Bishbp deprived of political power, is, that much will be thereby done to release her from thatfalse position which her mistaken friends would claim for her. - 'THEs CoirssAurAT.-The Hashemy, which ar rived yesterday afternoon, brings the intelligence of the appointment of Assistant Commissary General Maclean, to the Commissariat of this colony. THE BUILDING AcT.-Since the Building Act came into operation building of all kinds has been effectu ally stopped, tradesmen thrown out of. employ, and house-rents raised fifty per cent. Such are the effects of injudiious legislation. THE BLACKS.-The blacks are again becoming troublesome in the southern districts. Two white men have already been murdered, one an assigned servant to Mrs. Jenkins, of Eagle Vale, and the other a man in the employ of Mr. Larkins, of Billybong Creek, near the Hume. A reward of twenty pounds is offered for the capture of the murderers of Mrs. Jenkins' servant. The long-promised Police stations on the route to Port Phillip do not seem to be formed yet. Bas-I or NEw SoUtra WAL.ES.-The Directors of the Bank of New South Wales have raised the salary -tiached io the office of cashieir to 8001. per annum. The Directors have also declared a dividend of 8 per cent on all shares paid up, for the-half year ending 31st December last. THE BIG RIVER MASSACRE -The Australian of Thursday says:-" We understand that it is not the intention of the Crown Law Officers to place the four men now remaining in the Sydney Jail on their trials for the murder of the Aborigines at the Big River." We apprehend our contemporary is under a mistake. LEGAL CHIT CHAT.--Tl'he report that Mr. Carter, the barrister, was about to retire from the profession, promulgated by The Australian some time since, has been contradicted. SwAN RIVER.-A vessel from Swan River, laden with wool, oil, and timber, exclusively the productions of the colony, reached England in July last, being the first instance since the settlement was formed. TnrDE wITa BR:TAsN.-From a tabular statement furnished by the East India and China Association, which appears in The Asiatic Journal for September, we learn that from the Ist January to the30th June, 1837. there sailed for the Australian colonies, from London, forty ships, tonnage 13,431; from Liver pool, four ships, tonnage 1470, forming a total of -orty-fourships, tonnage 14,901. :During the same period in 1838, there sailed for the Australian colo. nies, from London,sixty-three ships, tonnage 23,715; from Liverpool ten ships, tonnage 4149; .from Bristol one ship, tonnage 546, forming a total of seventy-four ships, tonnage 28,410, being an increase of thirty ships, tonnage 13,509.

EMIGRATION,-It is stated in Blackwood's JMaga sine for September, that the new emigrant agencies cost the British nation upwards of 20001. a year. THl' IRISH Sys2FM.-Blackwo,.d's Magazine for September, in an article on Whig-Radical Corrup tion, referring to this colony, says:-" The (Mi nisters) send to New South .Wales, Sir IMiaurice O'Connell, a fit and proper instrument for carrying out that infidel system of education, which is.adopted to please the Roman Catholic emigrants, and against which the excellent Bishop Broughton has in vain protested." For once Old Ebony is in a mistake, Sir Maurice O'Connell is a Protestant, and a most unlikely person to lend his support to a scheme which Sir Richard Bourke with all his talent, was unable to force down the throats of the community. DRnouonr.-A correspondent of The Asiatic Jour. oal for September, recommends a more extended cul tivation of root-crops in countries liable to long continued droughts; because, he says, " Root-crops are not in so great danger of failure as grain-crops; and besides this, it is rare that roots and grains both fail in the sam. year." -. .

• n THE ?t?IvNUE.--The abstract of the Revenuefor the years 1837 and 1838, and for the last quarters of the same years having been made up, we take the earliest opportunity of laying their substance before our readers, commencing with the quarterly accounts. The principal items on which there has been any decrease is " Customs," which for the quarter ending December 31, 1837, amounted to 33,2661. 10s. 3d., while for the same quarter of 1838 they amounted to 30,5301. 2s. 9d., a decrea-e of 27,7361. 7s. 6d. The " fines levied by Courts of Justice" amounted to 12911, 6s. 10t., a decrease, as compared with the corresponding quarter of 1837, of 5161. 10s. 44d., which is easily accounted for by the Magistrates having ceased to levy fines on parties for the greater part of the quarter, in consequence of the decision of the Supreme Court that several Acts of Parliament did not apply to this colonrly. Sales of Government properly, there were none last quarter, which makes a decrease on this item of9701. 12s. 8-d. " Collec tions by the Agent for the Church and School Estates," amounted to only 22341. 18s., a decrease on the quarter of 73931. 8s. 21d. "The " Repayments by poor settlers of wheat distributed to them by Govern ment on loan," amounted to 261., a decrease of 5571 These sums with one or two trifling items make the tota I decrease on the quarter amount to 12,3471 Is. jd. We now proceed to the items on which there was an increase. The first item is." Duty on Spirits distilled in the colony," 10941. 9s. 6d;, an increase of 7591. 10s. 6d., which is a pretty conclusive argument in favour of the Distillation Act, which came into opera. tion on the 1st of November. " Auction Duty and Licenses to Auctioneers," 19571. 4s. 4d., an increase of 9001.; " Post-office,"l9511. 18s. 9d , an increase of 8001.; the sale of "Crown Lands," exclusive of those at Port Phillip, amount to nearly the same sum as the corresponding quarter of.1837, the sales in that year amounting to 29,3741. 3s. 9d., and in 1838, to 29,8671.4s, an increase on the quarter of 4921, 15s.3d. " Proceedsof the sales of Stores landed from emigrant ships," is a new item amounting to 32041. 6s. 10Od. " Interest on public monies deposited in the Colonial Banks," amounts to 29521. 7s. 8d., and there is no corresponding item in the last quarter of 1837. The Port Phillip revenue, although added into the general totals, is separated from the other amounts and con sists of three items-" Customs," 6201. Is. lId., an increase of 1111. 4d.; Crown Lands," 29,9641. 16s. 3d., which, as there is no corresponding item in 1837, shows an increase to that amount, as also does " Li censes to depasture Stock on Crown Lands," 4501. The total revenue for the quarter including the Port Phillip items amount to 110,2391. 15s. 71d., an in crease of 28,0731. 9s. 81d. The Port Phillip revenue amounted to 31,0341. lbs. 2d., without which the re venue on the quarter would have shown a decrease of 29611. 8s. 5$-d. We now proceed to the consideration of the" Abstract of the Produce of the Revenue of the Colony of New South Wales, in the years ended December 31, 1837, and 1838 respectively." The total revenue for the year 1837, was 354,7431 9s. 81d., and for 1838, 334,0791. lls. ll-., a decrease of 20,6631. 17s. The first and most important item is "Customs," which, for the year 1838, amounted to 147,2001. Is. lid., a decrease of 17,2791. 12s 2d. " Licenses to retail Spirits," amounted to 10,2731.; a decrease of5611. " Crown Lands"shew a decrease of 34,1661. 8s. 3d., the amount of this item in 1837 being 120,4731. 7s. lid., while last year it was only 86,3061. 19s. 8d. The "Collections by the Agent for the Church and School Estates,"amount to 39641. 2s. 6d., a decrease of 79661. 15s. Id. " Proceeds of the Sale of Property found in the possession of felons," only amounted to 4831. 7s. 4d., a decrease of 46351. 10s. 21d. The items on which there was any increase were" Duty on Spirits distilled in the Colony," 27551. 2s. 6d., an increase of 14431.1 Is. 6d. "Auction Duty and Licenses to Auctioneers" 62211. 10s. Id , an increase of 13351. 6s. 2d. " Post Office," 83901. 16s. lid., an increase of 27941. 17s. 6d. " Fees of Public Offices," 10.1471. 13s. 61d., an increase of 22371. 10s 3d., " Licenses to depasture on Crown Lands," 42001., an increase of 5201. " Proceeds 6f sales of stores landed from Emigrant ships," is a new item aamount ing to53891. 4s. 9kd. The Port Phillip Revenue consists of " Customs," 22391. 17s. 10d., a decrease of 1181 6s. 9d.; " Crown Lands," 34,6431. Id., an increase.of 30,9301. 6s. Id.; and " Licenses to bepaslure Stock on Crown Lands," which isa new item, amounting to 5801. The different items of increase amount to 45,8551. 14s. 3jd., whicli dce ducted from the decrease of the year, shows a dif ference o1"20,6601. 17s. 9;id.,which is the decrease on the year. Whileon thesubject of Revenue, it may be interesting to our readers to lay before them the total amount of the Revenue for the last eight years; -1831, 122,8541. 13s.; 1832, 136,7771. 10s. 8.d.; 1833, 165,0581. 7s. 4d.; 1834, 205,5551. 5s. Old.; 1835, 273,7801.13s. 11?d.; 1836, 330,5691. 9s.2d.; 1837,354,7431.Ss. 8d.; 1838,334,079.11. Ils 1 id.; By this statement, our readers will perceive that al though the revenue of 1838, showed a decrease of 20,0001, as compared with the year 1837, it was an increase of40001. on the year 1836, and more than double the revenue of theyear 1833.-Sydney Herald. PORT PHILLIP IN 1838, BY A VxsrTo.--1 ap. proached the' heads, with feelings of an unpleasant nature, for reports were unfavourable as to its en trance. The clear channel is about a mile and a half; lie rate of tide with its violent ripplings, is not near as bad as places I have visited; such for instance as Calcutta, Dardanelles, Bosphorus, Pentland Frith, Queen Charlotte's Sound, and many other places; it is nevertheless an awkward place for a ship to be be calmed, and it requires a high and low light to render it serviceable to vessels in the night. Therands with in the heads also want buoys, which should be firmly built of pine or cedar, and be well sheathed and cap pered. There are many parts within the heads that require either buoys or beacons, and to render Mel bourne river more accessible, buoys and beacons would be found beneficial. A pilot stationed within Point Nepean would be of much service, and another at Gellibrand's Point is also necessary. The passage to Geelong, river, and harbour, also requires beacons. Melbourne, the present capital, is a remarkable fine place for a township, and is surrounded with a truly delightful country; its climate and soil are far superi or to Adelaide, and its natural source hold out many more advantages to the capitalist as well as to the la bourer. This place has been colonized by a few wealthy and spirited members of the sister colonies, chiefly ,from Van Diemen's Land, and is as yet with out a Governor, being almost unknown in England; it has never been puffed off .in a collection of long speeches by practised orators at Exeter Hall. The bubbles blown at that place in favour of Adelaide are extremely absurd and injurious to society. The foun ders of Mlelbourne ar-e experienced colonists, whose knowledge of colon:zation is too well known to need publication in handbills and newspapers, with a lo.g show of M. P.'s, and a dinner at the Albion in Alders gate-street. The pencil of the artist cannot add beauty to the surrounding scenery of Melbourne or Geelong, which will eventually show itself in colours equa'l to any in New South Wales, or its dependencies. How ever reports could be made that this place was desti tute of fresh water, I cannot imagine; there is a beautiful little river of excellent water flowing through Melbourne, which contains more water by nine-tenths than the creek at Adelaidle which is honoured by the naname of the " River Torrents." T'he township of Gaelong is also a very retty place, with excellent soil, but its fresh water is not convenient for shipping. I have little doubt but coals are to be found in the v.

clatty of Ueelong, anti if so, they will be of excel. lent qnality. Society in Melbourne is much better than that of Adelaide, being entirely destitute of " hall swells," loungers, &c., so prevalent in Adelaide; nor is there any nonsensical party spirit, with caviling for office by a few individual, sent out under the patron age of titled men, whose salaries will neither find them in shoes to tramp their barren wastes, nor turn their pretty-bright button thread-bare coates into new ones. When the word hotel was announced to me on my way to Mlelbourne, I pictured to myself a little weather. boarded house, or a bark hut, or some such as 1 had seen in Adelaide; but judge of my surprise when I looked at a building somethung like the Bush hotel, Picadilly-the fittings up are certain ly less costly, but upon the whole, there are two or three houses in Melbourne capable of entertaining noblemen. Buildings generally are very.much su perior in Melbourne to those in Adelaide; in the former place there are neither canvass tents nor wig. wans,-in a few words, I beg to say that..lelbotrne is to Adelaide what gold is )ogdroas,--Port Philfip Guourte. -

r THE ABORIG~NEs.-- We urnlerstand that in several f districts of the colony the Aborigines have been ex ceedingly useful to the settlers in assisting them to get in their harvest. At Mr. Nicholson's farm at Sutton Forest they have proved themselves good reapers, and at Twofold Bay equally so. At the latter place they reap at so much per acre, and accomplish a' task equal to the European reapers. NEW PUDLICAIION.-A new work entitled A Few Words on the State of Transported Felons, from the pen of a Mr. Arthur Charles Luthman, has just is sued from the London Press. The Monthly Magazine recommends it " to the attention of those whom the government and well.being of New South Wales es pecially regard." LAND.-- Tie Governor has received a despatch from the Secretary of State, directing that, in future, the minimum price of waste lands be raised to twelve shillings per acre. This arrangement is stated in The Government Gazette of this week, to include lands already under advertisement or applied for. T'H?E TREASURERSIIP--Deputy Commissary Ge neral Miller, we understand, has undertaken to dis charge the duties of Colonial Treasurer and Collector of Internal Revenue,in conjinction with the business of his own department, during the absence tf Mr. Riddell, who proceeds forthwith to Europe on two years leave. SOUTH AUSTRALIA.-ANOTHWER FRESH WATER RIVER.- We rejoice to i Iform our readers that another fresh water river, within a distance of forty five miles from Adelaide, has been discovered by Mr. T. Hlewes Strangways and Mr. S. Blunden, in the excursion made by these gentlemen alluded to in The Gazette. The stream contains at least three times the body of water of thire Torrens, and runs through a country of surpassing beauty and fertility. It was named " The Uawler" in compliment to His Excel lency the Governor. The following is a rough out line of the journey which has been obligingly com municated to us :-Thursday, November 22. Left Adelaide this forenoon with provisions for six days, and followed the direction of the Torrens, which we crossed and re-crossed several times for nearly twenty five miles. Towards evening came upon a beautiful valley of rich land, producing grass of the first qua lity, and extending to nearly four thousand acres. The river runs through this valley; and we encamped for the night-under some beautifullyspreading gums -the very site for a gentleman's residence, with his park already formed by nature. Friday,23. Started at day-break, and, following the river, found another valley of nearly the same extent and beauty as the one we had left a few hours before-the Torrens increasing in size and running into long and very deep pools for some time; but after a progress 'of some miles again decreasing. About twelve o'clock we reached the source of the river at a distance from Adelaide, as the crow flies, we suppose to be about thirty-five miles; but, with the windings, the river probably runs about twenty miles more. The Tor rens rises from a spring where the hills are very high all round, and which, from associations connected with England, we named Davy's Punchbowl. After resting here for some time, and refreshing ourselves and horses with copious draughts from this cooling spring, we proceeded in a due northerly direction, and for about eight miles our course lay over a barren track of sand and stones, occasionally interspersed with a green patch and a few stunted mimosas. The country, however, suddenly improved, and became very fine-the grass growing high and in great abun dance, and the blue and white gum trees becoming more numerous in the bottoms. It was evident we were no great distance .from water, and we accord ingly proceeded with increased interest, and just before sunset we struck upon a fine river, runing deep and strong, and containing, we should say, abose three times as much water as the Torrens. We named it the Gawler, after His Excellency the Go vernor. The water was fresh, and, from its exceed ing coldness, we infer the existence of springs from which it is supplied at no great distance. Should this be the case the value of this district cannot be over-estimated, as it combines within two miles of the river, the richest alluvial soil, and beyond that extent track after track of the finest sheep-downs that can be conceived. The valley of Mootaparinga, near Encounter Bay, does not surpass the land on the Gawler. The river evidently takes its rise on the hills towards the north-west bend of the Murray, and fallis i'nti the lii?d ofthe giilf. We remaiftied on its banks for the night. Saturday, 24. After some d(ifficulty we fouind a fordable passage across the Gawler, and proceeded towards the Hummock Hills. From the hills, looking as far north and nortli-west as the eye could reach, we saw the same fine dsvns extending; and there is no doubt that for sheep runs this district is unequalled in Australia. In our opinion there is ample room and excellent feed for 100,000 sheep, and nearer to the valleysexcellent stations for any amount of cattle may be found. We were now about sixty miles from Adelaide; and our object, which was to find good runs for our stock, being attained to our perfect satisfaction, we deter mined to return by a more westerly route. We therefore recrossed the Gawler about twelve miles below the spot where we discovered it. The river here was about the same size, but the country pre sented even a richer appearance. The grass was breast high and the timber heavier. There was no appearance of the country being ever flooded, and, indeed, the undulating hills at a short distance showed that to be impossible. Continuing a south east course we struck the main branch of the Parry river, which resembles the Torrens in size and general character. Proceeding forwards, we houndl the spot where the expedition headed by Colonel Light and Mr. Fisher turned back, and shortly afterwards we crossed the south branch of the Parry, where we encamped, and returned to Adelaide the next day, after a pleasant excursion of four days, during which we saw a country of greater capability for all varieties of agri cultural and pastoral enterprise than any we have yet explored. We did not meet a single native. Soruth Australian Gazette, December 1. CARTERS' BARRACKS.- The Carters' Barracks mu tineers were brought up again at the Police Office, on Thursday, and the warrants under which they had been confined having been read, they were all committed to take their trial. SUDDEN DEATU.-A tailor named Pamington, re siding in Elizabeth Street, died very suddenly on Wednesday last. Pamington was a man of very in temperate habits, and his death is attributed to apo plexy, brought on by the excessive use of ardent sprits. MvRDenR.-Inspector Presser, of the Sydney po lice, died on Wednesday, from the effects of the blow inflicted by a prisoner in his custody, with a New Zealand waddy, as narrated in our last number. A coroner's inquest, held on the remains at the Bunch ef Grapes, King Street, on the afternoon of the same day, returned a verdict of wilful murder against Pen der, the person who inflicted the blow. SUimCIDI.,-A female named Redman, the keeper of a respectable lodging-house in Pitt-street, poisoned herself on Monday afternoon. Domestic quarrels, it seems, had induced habits ofintemperance, and the fatal.deed was committed in a fit of remorse ensuing upon a round of intoxication.

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