A GAZETTEER OF CENTRAL POLYNESIA- (CONTINUED).
[ABBREVIATIONS.-For the Fijian Archipelago-Fi :, for the Samoan Archipelago-Sa :, for the Vaitupu Group-Vai :, for the Tongese Archipelago-T :, for the Hervey Group - Her :, for the Marquesas Archipelago-Mar :, for the Society Isles-Soc :, for the Georgian Group-Geo :, for the Austral Group-Aust :, and for the Paumotus Archipelago-Pau :. By observing these abbreviations after the name of any island it may be seen whether it forms part of any of these larger groups and archipelagos, and
further and more elaborate information relative thereto be readily
MACAULEY (or Recherche I.) One of the Kermadec Group, to
the NE. of Curtis Island and to the SSW. of Raoul Island, to
MAGDALENA I, Mar : (Fatou-hiva, or Fetuiva, &c.) One of the
SE. group of the Marquesas Islands thus named when dis- covered by Alvaro de Mendana de Neyra on the 21st July,
1595. See Fatouhiva and Marquesas Group. [Observe ENE. of Magdalena at the distance of 10 or 11 miles, is a dangerous rock, whose position is in latitude 10-21 S., longitude 138-29 W. It is not larger than a ship, and not more than 12 or 15 feet above the level of the sea.]
MAHOOWARA, Her : This name, which appears in some maps
as for one of the Hervey Group, is probably meant for Mitiaro, to which refer. As distinct from that island it does not exist.
MAIAOITI, Geo : (Tapamanoa, or Tabuaemanu, Oumaitia, the
Sir Charles Saunder's island of Wallis.) This island of many names, is now generally known as Tapamanoa. Maiaoiti is one of the native names by which Mr. Ellis, the author of " Poly- nesian Researches," has distinguished this island; but he also alludes to it as Tabuaemanu. For a description, &c. see Ta-
pamanoa, and Sir Charles Saunder's Island, under letters T
MAKAHAA, T : An islet near the NE. end of Tongatabu, divided
by a sea channel from Monuafe.
MAKATU, Fi : One of the Kombelau Islets, to which refer.
MAKEMU, Pau : (or Makima, Makimo, &c., also called Phillip's
I, and Koutousoff I.) A lagoon island (or chain of islets) trending from ESE to WNW., about 30 miles in length ; having an entrance to its lagoon, with an anchorage at the western ex- tremity. Has but few inhabitants. Lies between Taenga and the Sea Gull Group of Wilkes, to the eastward of Raraka, Katiu, and Fakarawn, &c. * Latitude 16-30 S., longitude 143-45 W.
MAKONDRANGA, Fi : (Makodraga or Mokundranga) A small
island 13 miles NNE. of Ovalau, and due E. of Viti Levu Bay, in the NE. coast of Naviti Levu. Makondranga lies a little to
the NW. of Makongai.
MAKONGAI, Fi : (Makogai or Mokungai) An Island larger
than the preceding, which it nearly adjoins. Gives its name to Makongai Passage. Lies 13 miles NNE. from Ovalau, and 38 miles in about the same direction from Bau. Population, according to Wilkes, in 1840, 100 souls.
MAKULUVA, Fi : (or Nakulau; called also by Lieutenant
Pollard, Mukuluva.) A small sandy islet, covered with cocoa- nut trees, near Nukulau, on the southern side of that island. Lies in the reef off Rewa Roads, immediately opposite the mouth of the Wailevu River, and Point Draketi, at the south-eastern extremity of Naviti Levu. See Nukulau.
MALAKE, Fi : An Island off the N. coast of Naviti Levu, 2
miles from the mainland ; it is hilly; its people are very bar- barous. On it are old stone fortifications.
MALDEN, I : An island NNE. of the Maniiki Group, in * latitude
5- S., longitude 155- W.
MALI, Fi : An island off the N. coast of Vanua Levu, 15 miles E.
of Mathuata. It is about 3 miles long, and from 1 mile to 1½
MALICOAH, T : An islet in the reef off the NE. extremity of
Tongatabu, near Taou or Tau.
MALIMA or MOLINA, Fi : Two small islands W. by N. from
Vanua-valavo (one of the Exploring Isles), to the N. of the eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago. Uninhabited.
MALLATTA, Fi : See Namalata, one of the Exploring Isles.
MALOLO, Fi : An islet W. of Malake, on the N. coast of Naviti
Levu Was formerly inhabited,
MALOLO, Fi : An island 7 miles off the W. coast of Naviti
Levu, and about 100 miles from Bau. Two American officers were here killed by the natives in 1840. It is not reckoned one of the Yasawas, but lies near the southern extre- mity of that group. Is the principal island in the cluster dis- tinguished by Wilkes as the Underwood Group. Lies in lati-
tude 17-47 S., longitude 177-07 E.
MALOLO LAILAI, Fi : A smaller island adjoining the foregoing,
on the SE. side.
MAMANUTHA, Fi : An island, one of the Yasawas, W. of
MAMBUALAU, Fi : A small islet on the reef off Kamba Point, to
the E. of Naviti Levu. It lies due E. of Tombarua and Bau.
MANA, Fi : A small uninhabited island in the reef (Beregi's
Reef ?) SW. from Ono-i-lau. The southernmost island belong- ing to the eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago. See
Tavana-i tholo and Tavana-i-ra.
MANAFA, T : An uninhabited islet near Ofu, a mile or two to the
SE. of Neiafu, the chief town of Vavau.
MANAKA, Pau : (Maraeau of Beechey) The southernmost of two
lagoon islands, known as the "Group" of Captain Cook : Daw- haida, from which it is divided by a deep sea channel, being the northernmost. South extreme of Manaka is, according to Beechey, in latitude 18-09-58 S., and longitude 142-08-15 W. See
Dawhaida, and Group Islands.
MANANITA, T : A sandy islet, S. of Vavau, not far from
MANGAIA Her : (Mangeea, or Manjia; also called Maniaa by
Ellis.) An island of coral rock formation, about 20 miles in circumference, discovered by Captain Cook on the 29th of March, 1777 ; has a reef round it, joined to the shore, and through which there is no passage even for boats ; population, between 2000 and 3000, all Christians ; situated in latitude 21-57 S. and longitude 158-7 W., about 120 miles SE. by S. from Rarotonga, and nearly the same distance due S. of Atiu. The principal villages are Onerva Tamarua, and Ivirua. Mangaia is a fertile island; as a country comparatively low, but with singularly formed and steep cliffs. It has also several remark- able and extensive caverns. The political state of Mangaia, like that of Rarotonga, does not appear to be very distinctly de- fined, probably subject to chieftaincies under missionary influence. MANGAREVA, Pau : (Peard Island of Beechey.) This island,
of volcanic origin and a very irregular shape, is the largest of that cluster, at the SE. extremity of the Paumotus, sometimes called the Gambier Group, but more properly the Mangareva Islands. Mangareva is (with the exception of the long, low, and narrow islets called Smyth's Islands, situated on the outer coral reef ) the most northern of the Mangareva or
Gambier Group. Mangareva, named Peard Island by Beechey after one of his officers, is about 6 miles in length, and rises into two peaks elevated 1248 feet above the level of the sea. These peaks, called after the Duff, are of a wedge-like form, very conspicuous at a distance, and visible 14 or 15 leagues off. Small islets are scattered along its northern aspect. Within the barrier reef, due S. of Mangareva, lie the islands of Marsh and Collie; to the SE. of Mangareva, the islands of Elson and Wainwright; to the SW. of its western extremity the islands of Belcher and Nielson; and still further to the SW. a low and singularly shaped insular tract known as the Wolfe Sands. There is an entrance from the open sea through the barrier reef on the NW. side of Mangareva, but the channel when inside is intricate. Fresh water is to be found on the S. side of the island, directly S. of Mount Duff. The principal village lies on the shores of a bay to the NE. of Mount Duff. There are
three or four others. The eastern peak of Mount Duff is placed by Beechey as follows : Latitude 23-7-58 S., longitude 134-54-54 W. The variation is 7-15 E. For further particulars, see Man-
MANGAREVA GROUP, Pau : More correctly, according to some,
the Mareva Group; also called Gambier Islands, &c. This
cluster at the SE. extremity of the Paumotus Archipelago, and WNW. of Pitcairn Island, was discovered by the Missionary ship Duff, in 1797, and named by Mr. Wilson, her commander, after Admiral Lord Gambier. It consists of four large islands and several smaller ones, situated in a lagoon formed by a reef of coral, and lying between latitude 23-1 and 23-15 S., and longi- tude 134-49 and 135-3-30 W. They are all (with the exception of two sandy reef islets, on the northern and western aspects) extremely steep and rugged, and obviously of volcanic origin, clothed with verdure, and for the most part with trees. The Mangareva Group is, moreover, a locality well supplied with good water,-than which nothing can be more important to the navigation of these seas, that indispensable article not being elsewhere found in a pure state, between Tahiti and the coast of Chili (a distance of 4000 miles) except, indeed, at Pitcairn Island, whence it is difficult and well nigh impossible to get it on board ship. Captain Beechey, R.N., under whose direction a survey was made of this series in 1826, states that in addition to several sorts of wood (some of a very useful de- scription) and flowers, the group is by no means deficient in a variety of edible roots, nor in those kinds which are most pro- ductive and nutritious. Besides the ti-plant( Dracoona termi- nalis), sweet potatoo, sugar cane, water-melon, cocoanut, plantain, and banana, he found on his visit that the natives possessed the breadfruit and the taro, from both of which an abundance of wholesome food is procurable, far before that vegetable nastiness they call mahie, which does, it is true, sup- port life but nothing more. Rats and lizards were at that time the only quadrupeds of the Mangareva Islands. Among the birds, besides sea fowl, were found the wood pigeon and a sort of thrush ; of insects, but very few ; and of fish, in the neighbouring waters, a great and choice variety. The Mangarevans are a handsome race, fairer than the Hawaiians, and resembling the people of Tahiti, but less effeminate in their appearance. "They have," says
Beechey, "generally a fine Asiatic countenance with moustache and beards, but no whiskers ; and when their heads are covered with a roll of white cloth (a very common custom) they might pass for Moors." The same distinguished navigator, in his elaborate and valuable account of this group speaks at large of their customs of tatooing, &c., of their huts, coral tables and pavements (similar to those of Habai and the Marquesas) and of their houses built of pourou wood, with pointed roofs thatched over with the leaves of the palm. He also observed that they were not unequal to constructing for their areghes or chiefs, very superior habitations of a larger size than those in ordinary use, in which low walls of solid masonry, composed of large blocks of coral, shaped in a workmanlike style, were, amongst other things, to be met with. They had neither clubs, slings, nor bows and arrows, their weapons consisting only of spears, and a staff flatened at the end like a whale-lance, made of hardwood and highly polished. The few other arti- cles and implements in use amongst them are mentioned as well. and even tastefully made, and as evidently possessing a distinct and peculiar character. Contrary to the usual custom in this quarter of the globe, the Mangarevans do not go upon the water in canoes, but have rafts or catamarans instead, in the management of which they evince considerable dexterity. Beechey esitmated the population of the group at 1500 souls, but this appears to have been little on his part than a rough guess at their number: one of his officers, a Mr. Collie, computed them at about 200 less. Captain Beechey considered them to bear a strong re- semblance, in many respects, to the people of Tahiti and the Marquesas, &c., but with an important exemption, however, from those sensual and indecent exhibitions which in those parts were then, at all events, but too common. He found also a great and perplexing admixture of feature and of colour amongst them ; and was of opinion that he should also have discovered an equal difference of dialect could he but have remained long enough to acquire a knowledge of the language. The same very competent authority describes a custom of the Mangarevans in the disposal of their dead, recalling the Tupapows or houses of corruption in use amongst the ancient Tahitians. An unfortunate collision with the natives prevented Beechey from carrying his observations quite so far as he desired ; but a survey was, under his direc-
tions made of this group, and to this day his account contains nearly all that is practically known of the cluster. Of late years, however, since the fall of Tahiti, as an independent power, the Mangarevn Group has passed, it is understood, under the rule of the French ; and Roman Catholic missionaries of that nation have educational and religious establishments here,- chapels upon all the principal islands, and on the largest, Man- gareva, a handsome stone church which would do honour to any locality. Of the present state of this group, as to population, politics, and religion, little has been distinctly ascertained beyond what might have been reasonably presumed. It seems pretty clear, however, that all the Mangarevans are now, at least par- tially, converted to the the Roman Catholic faith, and regulated or governed, more or less by missionary influence.
The following is a list of the islands in the same barrier reef as Mangareva, arranged according to their relative size and im- portance, the larger ones first :-(1) Mangareeva (Peard I, of Beechey), the principal island of the group, from which the whole cluster is generally designated; its position with reference to all the smaller islands may be gathered from its particular description, to which the reader is referred. The next in size are (2) Taraware (Belcher Island of Beechey). (3) Akamaru (Wainwright's I, of Beechey.) (4) Akena (Elson I, or Beechey).The other islets, much smaller, are (5) Nielson Island, (6) Marsh Island. (7) Collie Island. (8) Smyth's Islands. And (9) Wolfe's Sands. The best passage through the coral belt on entering, is the break at the SE. by E. extremity ; and the safest channel out again is SW. by W.- but a recent authority states that Captain Beechey's chart of the group is so accurate, that any one possessing it needs no other instructions. The Mangarevans speak the south-eastern. Paumotuan dialect-said to be more like the Maori, or New Zealand language, than the north-western or Anaan.
MANGO, T : (Mago.) One of the southerly islands in the Habai
MANGO, Fi : (Mago.) A round island, 9 miles in circum-
ference, 10 miles SW. or Vanua Valavo (one of the Exploring Isles), and 46' NNW. from Lakemba. Mango is one of the eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago. A distinct reef lies
near it, NW. by N. 4 miles.
MANGO CHI, T : (more correctly, Mago jii.) An islet near Mango,
in the Habai Group, smaller than that island, as its name im-
MANGO CHI, Fi : (more correctly, Mago jii.) An islet near
Mango, in the eastern group of Fiji, smaller as its name imports
than that island.
MANHII, Pau: (Wilson's Island-the Waterlandt of Schouten and
Le Maire.) A lagoon island, at the NW. extremity of the Pau- motus, W. of Tiokea and Oura, the King George's Island of
Byron, and about 8 miles E. of Ahii. There is an entrance to the lagoon at the SW. end, near which fresh water is obtain- able. Its W. end lies in latitude 14-25 S., longitude 146' W. In its lagoon there is an island.
MANIIKI (or Manahiki, also called Humphrey's I.) An island
not more than 15 miles in circumference, in lati- tude 10-28 S., longitude 161-4 W.; 140 miles SW. of Ton- gareva, and NE. of Suwaroff Isle of some maps. Consists of an elevated and barren reef not more than 30 feet above the level of the sea. This inner reef, not more than 500 yards wide, is that part of the island inhabited. Population, 1200 persons, who live on cocoanuts and fish. Religion, Christian. Maniiki is a miserable spot, but the natives are much attached to it. For
further particulars respecting this island (which gives name to a number of straggling islands in its vicinity) the reader is re-
ferred to the Maniiki Group.
MANIIKI GROUP (or Manahiki Group, Penryhn's Isles,
Humphrey's Isles, Tongareva Group, &c.) A series of low and comparatively unimportant islands, known for many generations to the people of Rarotonga, and situated about 600 miles almost due N. of the Hervey Islands or Group. In the Maniiki cluster are included the several low reef islands between 8- and 10-S, latitude, and 158- and 161- W. longitude. At two islands only in this group have native missionaries, sent from the Missionary College at Rarotonga a few years since, been as yet received, viz., at Maniiki, the Humphrey's Isle of the English charts, and Tongareva, or Penryhn's Island properly so called. In 1853 these had made 2500 converts, The language is under-
stood closely to resemble the Rarotongan, or that of the Hervey
The principal islands of this group, of which anything is known, are as follows :-I. Maniiki (or Humphrey's Island), latitude 10-28 S., longitude 161-4 W.; II. Rakanga, 30miles distant from Maniiki; III. Fou; IV. Tokerau ; V. Tongareva (or Penryhn's Island), 140 miles NE. of Maniiki ; and VI. Alexander Island. This group is but very imperfectly known. The natives appear to be a harmless and inoffensive race. They are a branch of the Malayo-Polynesian, or Amphinesian stock. Their traditions state that their ancestors came to their present locality from the Hervey group, many generations ago, and their physical appearance, language, and customs favour this idea. The islands of this group are visited by ships for their pearl shells and pearls, which abound in the lagoons. Between the Maniiki Group and the Marquesas-to the E. of Tongareva-are, according to some maps, the three islands of Flint (the eastern island of that name), Wostock, and Caroline. Their native names, and exact position, being unknown, it can- not be distinctly stated whether they do or do not belong to the Maniiki Group. The names or synonyms of the islands of this group, as placed by Arrowsmith, are Bennett's I, Pescado, Riersens I, Humphrey's I, Liderous I, Francis I, and Flint I, -the western one of that name. NNE. of the Maniiki Group are a few barren islets, whose relative positions and identity do not appear to be yet very accurately determined. Amongst these are Independence I, Malden I, Starbeck I, Volunteer I, &c., &c.
MANONO, Sa : (Platte.) A small and flat, but important island,
attached by a shoal at its eastern extremity to the NW. end of Opolu-lying (with Apolima, which belongs to it) between that island and Savaii, the largest island in the Samoan Group. It is 5 miles in circumference, and has some harbours. There is an islet at each extremity of Manono, one of which-that at the western side-is Nulofa; of the other (on the eastern side, and smaller than Nulofa) the name is unknown. The people of Monono are not very numerous, but the position of their island, and their unquestionable possession of the almost im- pregnable fortress of Apolima, for many years part, given them a considerable, and often a preponderating influence throughout Samoa. Manono is a missionary station; its population was
described by the census, taken in 1853, as consisting of one thousand and fifteen persons; shewing a decrease of eighty
five since the previous census of 1839.
MANOUAI, Her : One of three uninhabited islets at the NW. end
of the Hervey Group, generally, but inaccurately, designated as the Hervey Islands. See Witati, and Hervey Island. MANUA, Sa : (More properly Manua-tele ; also called Opoun, Tau, and Toomahlooah.) This, the largest of the eastward group of the Samoas, is an elevated island about 16 miles in cir-
cumference rising to upwards of 2500 feet above the level of the
sea. It has a small settlement on the NW. side, where there is anchorage ground for vessels of lightdraught, and a pleasant
cove for landing in fair weather. Near this village (named
Feleasau) are a number of irregular shaped stone walls, the object of which is unknown, unless they were intended for defence. The little bay of Feleasau, according to Erskine, lies in latitude 14-11-30 S., longitude 169-29-45 W. Variation 9- E. N. of Feleasau, round the NW. point of Manua-tele (off which there is a rock only a few feet above water) stands the village of Tau, a name often, but erroneously, applied to the whole of this island, instead of the longer but more correct designation of Manua-tele, or the Larger Manua.
Manua is, properly speaking, the native appellation of the
whole of the eastward group of the Samoas, including the two
neighbouring islands of Oloosinga and Ofoo. The great mass of the population reside on Manua-tele, and were returned by the census of 1853, as 1275 souls. Besides Feleasau and Tau, there are five other villages in the eastward group one of which is on the Western side of Ofoo. Manua-tele was the first part of Samoa discovered by Bougainville, in 1768; and into this island, so early as 1835, the Rarotongan teachers first introduced Christianity. The inhabitants of Manua-tele, and here adjacent islands, are all Christians, having a chief usually styled a king,
but who has no sovereign and scarcely even a magisterial authority. He resided, at the visit of Commodore Wilkes, in 1840, on the island of Oloosinga, as a place more easily defen-
sible than Manua-tele. For further information respecting this island, see Samoan Archipelago.
MANUWANGI, Pau : (Cumberland I.) A lagoon island, SE. of
Nengo Nengo (or, Prince William Henry's Island) and nearly due W. of Hairi. Position, according to Beechey, in latitude 19-10-19 S. ; longitude, 141-10-43 W.-reckoned from the North Stony Point. It is of the same character as most of the other
islands in the Paumotus.
MAOUNA, Sa : A name erroneously applied by M. De La Perouse
to Tutuila, to which refer.
MARCHAND I, Mar : (Sometimes appears as Marchard.) A
synonym for Nukahiva, from a French navigator of this name,
who visited that island in 1789. See Nukahiva.
MARETIRI, Aust : (Four Crowns of Bass.) Four rocky islets 40
miles E. by N. of Rapa, the most south-easterly island in the Austral Group, which see.
MAREVA GROUP, Pau : The more correct form, acoording to
some, of the name, for the Gambier Group. See Mangareva Group.
MARGARET'S ISLAND, Pau : See Nukutipipi ; thus named and
noted as a discovery in 1802.
MAROU, Fi : An island in the Yarawa Group NW. of Naviti
MARQUESAS GROUP, Mar : (Marquesan Archipelago, Las Mar-
quesas de Mendoza (Spanish), Marquises (French), &c. Also called the Mendana Isles and the Washington Islands.) A large isolated series of islands in the South Pacific, to the NNE. of the Paumotu Archipelago, forming the limit, in this direction, to Central Polynesia, and situated in from 8- to 11- S. latitude, and and from 138-30 to 143- W. longitude. This fine group, com- monly spoken of as the Marquesas (lying between 600 and 700 miles NE. of Tahiti), is composed of about a dozen principal islands, now usually divided by geographers into two clusters,
I. THE SOUTH-EASTERN Group, AND II. THE NORTH-WESTERN Group.
I. The South-Eastern Group, to which the designation of the Marquesas (given to them by their discoverer Alvaro de Men-
dara de Neyra, A.D. 1595, more particularly belongs, contains
the following islands:- beginning from the most south-eastern and proceeding northward. (1.) Fatouhiva, or La Magdalena,
lies to the S. of Motane, and to the SSE. of the large island of
Hivaoa. Its name is spelt in many very different ways ;-some
of the forms which it assumes are, Fetuiva, Futahiva, Futihiva, Fatuhiwa, Fatuhiwai, &c. (2.) Motane or Moutane, Mohotone, &c., also called San Pedro, lies nearly N. of Fatouhiva, and S. of the eastern extremity of Hivaoa, (3.) Hivaoa or Ohivahoa, also La Dominica. This, the largest island in the SE. Group,
lies about 7 miles N. of Taouta, and to the NNW. of Fatouhiva. (4.) Taouata or Tahuata (also called Santa Christina) lies NW. of Fatouhiva. (5.) Fetou-houkou or Fetougou, Fetuuku, &c., (the Hood's Island of Cook) lies directly N. of Hivaoa, whose position has been above described. There are other islands in the south-Eastern Group of the Marquesas, but these are the principal and best known.
II. The north-western group of the Marquesas (principally dis-
covered in 1791, and to which the name of Washington Islands is more particularly applicable) contains the following islands. (1.) Houa-poou (Uapou, Uapoa, Hoapoa, Roapoa, Roapona, Ropo, &c.) also called Adam's Island, and Bond Island- and (according to Arrowsmith) Trevennenos, or (according to Ellis) Treveninns I. Lies S. of Nukahiva I, and nearly due W. of Fetou-houkou in the south-eastern group. (2.) Obelisk Island (proper name unknown) on the SW. side of Houa-poou. (3. ) Houna houna, or Washington I or Solide I ; the Rious I, of Ellis (also called Roohn, Ruhooka, Huhuka, &c.) lies NW. of Fetou-houkou, and NE. of Houa-Poou. (4.) Nukahiva (Nukuheva, Nooaheava, Nuuhiva, &c.) also called Marchand I, or Sir H. Martin's I. This is the largest of all the Marquesas Islands, and its name (Nukahiva) is often used as including both Houna-houna and Houa-poou, as well as Nuka- hiva Proper, to which those two islands are adjacent. (5.) Motou-iti, or Hergest Island, also called Franklin's I. This is, properly speaking, two or three rocky islets lying close to each other WNW. of Nukahiva, and SSW. of Hiaou. (6.) Hiaou, or Masse, or Knox I, an island NW. of Nukuhiva. (7.) Fetou- ouhou or Chanal I, &c., lies N. of Hiaou. Besides these there are some others. The situations of the islands of both groups enumerated in the above list are chiefly taken from those assigned to them in the American Atlas, but as regards the names and positions of the respective islands in the Marquesas, great discrepancy exists between different charts and other authorities. Coulter distinguishes the most northern island of the north-western group as Roberts' Island-possibly the Fetou-ouhou of the above list, and corresponding to the Chain or Chanal Isle of some maps. Others again call one of the larger islands of the south-eastern group Easter Isle- but which they mean it for is very uncertain. In addition to the senseless confusion arising from the various synonyms employed here, as elsewhere by navigators, in the endeavour, as it would seem, to supersede the proper native names, those designations themselves cause, in the consideration of this group, considerable difficulty : having been spelt so variously, and transcribed so carelessly, that any satisfactory unravelment seems to be well nigh impossible. The following is a list of names or synonyms, for islands in the Marquesan Group, which the writer has, for the above reasons, been unable to iden-
tify in preparing the foregoing nominal list. Chain or Chanal Isle
Coral Isle, Easter Island, Eulthu I, (?) Hamack I, Langdon I, Onateeva, and Robert's Island. The Marquesan Archipelago, although perhaps the most fertile and beautiful group in all Central Polynesia, is, from the present social and political state of its inhabitants, least known to civilized man. They are con- sidered, physically speaking, to be superior to any other race in the Pacific, some say to any other in the world. But their cha- racter is not in accordance with their personal beauty. Cannibals and idolaters of the most degraded kind they are, nevertheless, not entirely deficient in mental energy, as is evinced by their native arts and manufactures. Their cannibalism is beyond all doubt, and they have on many occasions proved themselves very inhospitable and treacherous to strangers. It would seem, how- ever, judging from some favourable instances, that their vices are rather the effect of ignorance, and bad
example, than of any particular inherent propen- sity to evil. Their features are usual regular and intelligent ; in complexion, inclining to an olive, and some-
what lighter than the Hawaiians. The Marquesans are much subdivided into separate chieftaincies or petty principalities,
the extent of which generally depends upon geographical limits. These states, with or without cause or provocation, are con- stantly at war with each other. The sovereignty of the Mar- quesas was, in 1842, claimed by the French, who since have laboured, but with very little success, to establish a settlement at Nukahiva. At one time so violent and untiring was the op-
position on the part of the natives, that the unwelcome visitors were compelled, temporarily, at all events, to evacuate the place. It is doubtful, however, whether the station has not re- cently been again founded; as his Excellency Du Bouzet, Go- vernor of the French establishments in Oceanie, left Tahiti (in company with the Lord Bishop of Axieri) in December, 1855, professedly upon on official visit to this group. Another station of a somewhat different cha-
racter has been recently formed at Fatouhiva, in south Eastern group of the Marquasas, by Hawaiian missionaries, (a) the Rev. Mr. Kekela and others, who, not uninvited (and accom-
panied by a Marquesan chief or king, named Makounui), left their native land for this scene of labour in 1853. They are
reported to have found the natives very teachable and friendly, and most anxious to acquire the English tongue, with some words of which several were already acquainted. Robert Mills,
an American sailor, detained in the group for some years, mar- ried the daughter of a principal chief; and appears to have been
the first who made a permanent and vigorous effort towards promoting the conversion and civilizatlon of this people. Feel- ing in need of assistance he wrote to the Hawaiian Islands, but not being then directly responded to, he went with his wife to the United States, where he is understood to have made arrange- ments with the American Missionary Society, to send out mis- sionaries to the Marquesas. By this time, probably, these gentlemen have arrived to the assistance and support of their Hawaiian brethren. In 1798, the conversion
of the Marquesans was attempted by the Rev. W. Crook, from Tahiti ; and subsequently, in 1833, another trial was made, but both efforts proving unsuccessful, the enterprise was, in each
case, soon abandoned.
The principal islands of the NW. group of the Marquesas were discovered in 1791, by an American named Ingraham, of the Boston, and by that navigator then named, in honour of the illustrious Liberator of the United States, the Washington Is- lands. The south-eastern group was, as has been already ob- served, first discovered by Mendana about two centuries pre- vious. The Marquesans are classed by ethnologists as a branch of the Amphinesian, or Malayo-Polynesian stock, and speak different dialects of the pervading language common to all the lighter races of Central Polynesia. The Marquesan is described as having a strong affinity to the Hawaiian. One of its principal differences from the Tahitian is that it introduces the letter K into such words as are, in their derivation, common to both lan- guages. It also, in similar cases, rejects the Tahitian R, with- out supplying its place by any other letter. Apart, however, from this general view it has been found to be subdivided into so many various dialects, as irresistibly to lead to the conclusion that the entire group was originally colonised from different parts of Polynesia; from Savaii (the Havaiki of their traditions),or possibly Hawaii (the present northern centre of civilization in the Pacific),or,lastly,as is not improbable, (b) from some of the islands in the Paumotus or others in tho more immediate neighbour- hood of Tahiti. The Marquesans, although fierce and warlike are ingenious, but, on ordinary occasions, an indolent race, liv- ing in towns and villages on the coast and inland ; and their country is remarkable as abounding in traces of a far higher state of civilisation than that at present enjoyed by the inhabi- tants. (See Nukahiva.) The population of the whole group is estimated at 50,000 souls, their religion being Paganism of a cruel and sensual character. They style their gaeat chiefs, or kings, Hekaika, and their warriors Toa. They have an evident traditionary knowledge of many of the islands of Polynesia,
known to them or to their ancestors before the arrival of Euro- peans and Americans. Stewart, who visited them in 1829, states that they ennumerated to him 44 of these islands, or which several were by him identified as belonging to the Georgian and Society Groups. The Marquesas became nominally subject to the Crown of France (prior to the occupation of Tahiti by that power) in 1842, when Admiral Du Fetit Thonars disembarked about 500 troops at different points in the NW. group, support-
ing the supposed pretensions of the native King Mowanna to the ascendency. The claims of this barbarian have of course been since, very properly, disregarded, and the Marquesas are now considered to be, in theory at all events, a French possession.
The principal productions of the archipelago are-pulse, yams cocoanuts, sugar-cane, cotton, bamboos. Hogs also are numerous. MARSH I, Pau : A small but rugged lofty island in the Man-
gareva or Gambier Group, 440 feet high, which at a distance resembles a ship. It lies within the barrier-reef, at little to the NW. of Collie I, and due S. of the principal island of Man- gareva, or Peard Island, named by Beechey, when he surveyed this group (in January, 1826), after one of his officers.
MARTHA'S I., Pau : (?) See Bond's Island. Doubtful; sup-
posed to have been distinguished as a new discovery in 1822. MARTIN I, Pau : properly Byam Martin, to which refer.
MARTINES I, Pau : (Tekureka, also Doubtful Island.) Name
given by the Spanish navigator, Don Domingo Bonechen, to
Tekureka (the Doubtful Island of Cook), on his visit to, and supposed discovery of that island on the 3rd November, 1774. MARUTEA, Pau : (Furneaux I.) The NW. island of this name.
Described, for convenience, under the head of Furneaux Islar to which refer.
MARUTEA, Pau : (Or Maretea, &c, also called Hood's Island ;
properly Lord Hood's Island.) The SW. island of this name.
Described under the head of Hood's Island, to which refer.
MASAFUERA. A dangerous rocky and barrier island, about 500
miles W. from Valparaiso, to the W. of Juan Fernandez, latitude 33-49 S., longitude 80-54 W. It attains an altitude of 1000 feet, is of a triangular form, about 12 miles in circumference, and difficult of access. Wood and water abundant, and fish plentiful on every side of the island. Here the Emile Louise was wrecked, on 5th April, 1855. Masafuera has an insecure an- chorage in 20 fathoms (Swallow's Anchorage) on its western side. Discovered by Fernandez, the Spanish pilot, in 1563. MASSE, Mar : A synonym for Hiaou, to which refer.
MATAHIRA, Soc : An islet within the sea-reef of Tahaa, to
N. or that island. See Tahaa.
MATAIWA, Pau : (Lazareffs Island.) A small lagoon island
bearing nearly due N. of Tahiti, , at the extreme NW. limit of the Paumotus. Lies 20 miles W. of Tikehau, or Kruseustern's Island; N. point in latitude 14-52 S., longitude 148-42 W. Has an entrance to its lagoon on the western side.
MATANGI, Fi : A small island NNW. or Kamia or Nggamea, E. of Vanua Levu.
MATATHA-WALEVU, Fi : (or Matathonilevu) an island, one of
the Yasawas, to the NW. of Naviti Levu.
MATHUATA, Fi : (also called Mathuata-i-wai) a small island
about 1 ¾ miles long, lying two miles from the mainland of Vanua
(a) This mission is composed exclusively of native Hawaiians,
sent out and wholly supported by the national church of that
people. The Hawaiians have also a mission at Bornabe and Oualan, in Micronesia ; assisted there by two ministers in connec- tion with the American Board of Missions.
(b) Captain Beechey appears to have been struck with certain peculiar points of resemblance between the natives of the Man-
gareva, or Gambier Group, and the Marquesians. See Beechey's
"Voyage to the Pacific," vol. i, chapter 6.
Levu, on its northern side ; about midway between Undu Point, and Dimba Dimba Point. Lies opposite to the town of Mathuata. MATHUATA, Fi : Another islet (described as near Vunitogaloa)
also lying on the N. side Vanua Levu.
MATIA, Geo : (or Maitea ; La Decena of Quiros, Osnaburgh of
Wallis, and Le Boudoir or La Pic de la Boudeuse of Bougain- ville). An elevated wooded island, of volcanic origin, lying about 70 miles E. of Tahiti, being the most easterly island of the Geor- gian, or, as it is sometimes rather vaguely termed, the Tahitian Group. The peak of this island rises, according to Beechy, 1432 feet above the sea level. The same authority places this island in latitude 17-53-39 S., longitude 148-00-47 W. Matia was for- merly used by the Tahitians as a place of banishment for criminals. MATILDA ISLAND, Pau : (Osnaburgh, or Bishop of Osnaburgh
Island of Carteret.) This island was discovered by Captain Carteret, on the 11th July, 1767. It lies in latitude 21-50-32 S., longitude 138-44-28 W., about 90 miles E. of Hereheretua.
(Bligh's Island), and directly S. of Teku or Barrow I, and Faith Island. It is a lagoon island 14 miles in length, with a narrow entrance, but a good harbour at the eastern extremity. The Matilda, whaler, was, in 1792, lost at this island, or at Cock-
burn Island, a little further to the S.E. Captain Beechey (who visited this spot in February, 1826) considers the Bishop of Osnaburgh Island (or Osnaburg Island) of Carteret, and this, which he designated Matilda Island, to be one and the same. Native name not yet ascertained. Not permanently inhabited.
MATTHEW'S ISLAND. (Also called St. Matthew's Island.) An
island of volcanic origin, lying 36 miles due W. of Hunter's Island (not Onaseuse), in latitude 22-20-12 S., and longitude 171-20-30 E. from Greenwich. See Hunter's Island, the south-
western Island of that name.
MATTINSON I, Vai : Synomyn given by Arrowsmith to the
most southern island of the Vaitupu Group, E. by N. of Ganges or Independence Island ; nearly 180- E. and W. of Greenwich,
in latitude 10-38 S.
MATUAKA, T : An island near Tongatabu.
MATUKU, Fi : An island in latitude 19-9-38 S., and longitude
179-44-4 E., 4½ miles long and from 1¼ to 3½ miles broad ; the most south-westerly of the eastern group of the Fijian Archi- pelago. It lies 96 miles SW. by S. from Lakemba, 94 SE. from Bau, and 66 miles SE. by S. from Gau. The summit of Matuku is elevated 126 3 feet above the level of the sea. The island trends from N. to S., and is wholly bounded by a fringe reef, which comes awash at low water, and projects 1 mile off the SE. and N. points of the island (though not farther than half-a-mile off the general coast line) making a circuit reef of 16 miles. Upon the western aspect of this outer reef, with the the central peak bearing E., is a gullet of 30 fathoms depth and one-eighth of a mile across, clearly definable from the mast head, and lead- ing into a basin with swinging room for two or three frigates in 16 fathoms water, and a shore adapted for coaling if hereafter desirable as a depot for steamers. This is the Carr's Harbour of the indefatigable Wilkes. Wood, water, vegetables, poultry, and pigs procurable here for one ship at a time, Population, 600. Religion, Christian. Friendly with white people. Tide rises in Carr's Harbour 5 feet, where it is high water, full and change, at 6 hours 18 minutes. Variation 10-30 E. On the opposite side of the island (the eastern side) there is another opening in the outer reef, lending to a smaller and otherwise less commodious place of anchorage, called Colvo Harbour.
MAUFILI An Island near the Society Isles, W. of Bolabola, but
rather more to the N., being near Moutoiti. (Doubtful whether Maufili a distinct island from Maupete, or only a varia- tion of the same name).
MAUKE, Her : (or Mauki, also called Parry's I.) A coralline island, 15 miles in circumference, in latitude 23- S., longitude 157-20 W., E. by S. of Atiu. Has only a small population, not
more than 200 souls, but could support a larger. Reef encircles it and joins the shore. Has no good anchorage. Was first visited by white men, in 1823. The fecundity of the cleared soil at this island supplies the natives abundantly with vegetable productions, and they have plenty of fowls, ducks, turkeys, and pigs, &c. Natives are Christians, a fine able-bodied race, but more resembling the Paumotuans than the Tahitians. Mauke was (together with Mitiaro) formerly subject to Atiu, or rather Katutia, but is now virtually independent.
MAUNO, T : A cocoanut island inside the barrier reef of Vavau,
near Fanua-onioni. Uninhabited. MAUPETE, Soc : See Maurua.
MAURELLE I, T : A synonym given to an island NW. of Vavau :
discovered by a Spaniard of this name, in 1781. In Maurelle's map this island is placed NW. of Amargura and SE. of Naiu
MAURUA, Soc : (also called Maupete or Maupiti.) An inhabited
island enclosed in a circular reef within which are several islets. Lies, according to Ellis, in latitude 16-10 S., and longi- tude 152-30 W., about 30 miles W. by N. of Bola Bola, from the high lands of which, on a clear day, its conical summits are visible. Two of the principal reef islets immediately adjacent to Maurua are named Tiapa and Tuanai. In Maurua, besides the vescular lava and basalt, common to all the islands in the immediate vicinity, a singular species of granite has been found in considerable abundance. Maurua is a dependency of Bola Bola. It was discovered by Captain Cook (with all the other Society Isles, properly so called) in July, 1769.
MAURY I, Fi : One of the Ringgold's Isles, to which refer. MAY I. Fi : An Islet NE. of Ono, to the NE. Kandavu.
MAYORCA, T : (or Majorca). Name given to Vavau by Captain
Maurelle on its discovery, now disused.
MBITI, Fi : An islet half-a-mile E. of Mathuata-i-wai, or Ma-
thuata Island off the N. coast of Vanua Levu.
M'KEANS I, Phoenix Group. (Robert's, or Robertson's I. ?) An
island W. by N. of Arthur I, (on the NW. side of the Phoenix Group) composed of coral sand and blocks, three-quarters of a mile in its entire length, and half a mile in width. Rises 25 feet above the level of the sea, and has no vegetation except a scanty growth of coarse grass. Surf runs high and renders it dangerous to attempt a landing. Lies in latitude 3-35-10 S., and
longitude 174-17-26 W., about 60 miles NNE. of Gardner's
MEANI, T : One of the Habai Group, NW. of Lefooga, or
MELVILLE ISLAND, Pau : Name given by Beechey to Teku-
kota, on his rediscovery of that island in 1826. It was origi- nally discovered by the Spanish Captain Don Tomas Gayangos, in 1775, and by him named San Julian. See Tekukota.
MENDANA ISLES, Mar : A synonym sometimes used for the
Marquesas Group in honour of their discoverer Alvaro de Men-
dana de Neyra.
MERRIL I, Pau : This island appears in old maps (with the
date 1833), as for one NW. of Minerva or Clermont de Tonnere I,-not far from another suppositious island named Camboy,
on the E. side of the Paumotus Archipelago. Was searched for by the American, brig Porpoise in 1840, without success, and evidently has no existence as a distinct island in the locality assigned to it. Possibly it may be correctly identified
with Ahangatou or Predpriate. METIA, Pau : (Aurora, or Recreation I, of Roggewein.) This
island (which must not be confounded with Matia lying two degrees S. of it) stands on the NW. limit of the Paumotus, about 70 miles SE. of Mataiwa, and 120 miles NE. by E. from Port Venus in Tahiti. It is, unlike most of the other islands in the Paumotus, a high island formed of uplifted coral, and sur- rounded by a bold coralline shelf. Its N. end lies in latitude 15-50 S., longitude 148-11 W. It rises abruptly from the sea, presenting on all sides, but the S., a perpendicular cliff worn into caverns. Its summit is covered with trees and a luxuriant vegetation, including the cocoanut and bread-fruit trees. In the upper and interior part of the island the soil is extremely rich, yielding great abundance of taro, sweet potatoes, melons, and yams ; also some tobacco. Pigs and poultry abound, as do also crabs and fish. Metia presents, unequivocal marks of having
been uplifted from the sea, which is of great depth near it ; within 150 feet of its cliffs no bottom was found by Commodore Wilkes with 150 fathoms of line. The inhabitants are repre- sented by that celebrated navigator as a cheerful, amiable, happy, and fine-looking race of men, numbering, in 1840, about 150 souls. Many were then found able to read and write. They are all Christians, and now, with the rest of the natives, the Paumotus, subject to the Imperial authority of France.
MIDDLEBURGH I, T : A disused name for Eooa, to which
MIDDLETON'S ISLAND. Appears on some maps in latitude
27- 58 S., longitude 159-30 E. No such island, however,
MIDDLETON'S ISLANDS, Fi : See Sir Charles Middleton's
Islands, letter S.
MIKAELOFF I, Fi : Russian name for Devora, to which refer. MINERVA I, Pau : Name sometimes applied by the English to
Clermont de Tonnere I, to which refer. Another synonym for Clermont de Tonnere, is Averel I, which in some maps appears erroneously as a distinct island, a little further to the ESE.
MITCHELL I, Vai : (Plasquet I.) An island, or small cluster, of
which the native name is unknown, lying a few miles SE. of Funafuti in latitude 9-18 S., longitude 179-50 E. From this island, or little cluster, a long reef extends in a southerly direc- tion, at the end of which is an island (Mattinson's I,) in latitude 10-38 S., longitude 179-50 E. MITCHELL ISLANDS. Islands lying considerably to the S. of
Pitcairn Island and Elizabeth Island. Exact position uncertain Discovered by Captain Mitchell in 1823.
MITIARO, Her : (The Mahoowara of some maps.) An island 20
miles NW. of Mauki, and 30 or 40 miles E. by N. of Atiu. It is smaller than Mauki, being not more than 12 miles in circum- ference; has about the same population and the same sort of reef. It contains a curious lake. Was formerly subject to Atiu,
and is perhaps still nominally so. Discovered in 1825. Religion,
MOALA, Fi : (or Muala.) A fine island, 8 miles long by 4 wide,
72 miles W. by S. from Lakemba. It may be considered as the extreme limit of the eastern group of the Fijis in this direction, being only 76 miles distant from Bau. Moala is a high volcanic island, with an opening through the reef on the W. side leading to an inferior harbour, the Charley Harbour of Wilkes. This is placed by Denham in latitude 18-32-45 S., and longitude 179-57-38 E. The towns are Navuthunimasi, Thakova, and some others. The island affords wood, water, and provisions. Popu- lation estimated by Wilkes in 1840, at 1400 persons. Religion, Christian. A Wesleyan mission station.
MOLLER I, Pau : Name given by Billinghausen to Amanu, to
MONGANE, T : (Mungone of Erskine.) An inhabited islet of the
Habai Group, NW. of Lefooga.
MONGATAPU, T : An islet near Tongatabu.
MONK ROCK, Fi : Lies one mile and a half to the NNE. of Drun (or Ndrua Ndrua) Island, off the N. coast of Vanua Levu. MONUAFE, T : An islet near the NE. and of Tongatabu, divided
by a deep sea channel from Mikahaa, near which is a danger-
ous sunken rock. See Tongatabu.
MOOREA, Geo : A native synonym for Eimeo, to which we
MOPEHA, (the Moupiha of Ellis, and (incorrectly) the Mopelia of
some maps.) An island about 300 miles W. of Tahiti, and 150 miles to the SE. of Fenua-ura, or the Scilly Isles. It is un- inhabited, and produces only cocoauuts and fish. Mopeha rests upon a coral foundation, and appears to be the Howe's Island of our maps. See Howe's Island.
MORAMBO, Fi : A small, lofty, and well-wooded island, 9 miles
NW. of Fulanga, one of the eastern group of the Fijian Ar-
MORO, Fi : One of the Kombelau Islets, to which refer.
MOTANE, Mar : (Moutan, Mohotane, &c, also called San
Pedro.) One of the SE. Group of the Marquesas Islands, rising to the height of 3670 feet above the sea level. See Marquesas, MOTHE, Fi : (Also within Moee.) An island, 2 miles in diame-
ter, E. of Komm , and 25 miles SE. by S. from Lakemba, to which it is directly subject. It belongs to the eastern group of the Feejeean Archipelago, and has two towns. Christian, and a Wesleyan Mission station.
MOTO-UTU, Geo : A small and beautiful coral islet, at the eastern
side of the entrance of the harbour of Papieti, on the coast of Tahiti. On this islet there is a dilapidated fortress.
MOTOU-ITI, Mar : (Franklin's Island.) Names, according to
some authorities, applied to Hergest Island or Rocks. One of the NW. cluster of the Marquesas. Motou-iti, or Hertest Island, is one hundred and fifty feet high.
MOTUAHUNA, Soc : An islet at the southern side of the entrance
of Otea Vanua Harbour, on the SW. aspect of Bola bola, within
the barrier reef.
MOTU-AHOU-NA Geo : An islet in the bareer reef of Tahiti, off
the NW. extremity of that island.
MOTU-OREA, Soc : An islet in the reef on the northern side of
the entrance to Tetoroa harbour, on the western coast of
MOTURIKI, Fi : An island (of which the inhabitants are still
chiefly heathen) 4 miles long and 1 mile wide - 2 miles SW. of
Ovalau, which see.
MOTUTUBE, Soc : An islet in the reef of Bolabola, off its N. end.
MOTUTUNGA, Pau : (Adventure Island of Cook, and San Julian
of Gayangos.) An inhabited lagoon island composed, strictly speaking, of four islets, to the S. of the Sea Gull Group, and to SW. of Makemu. On the NW. side of the reef there is a sin-
gular gap or chasm in the reef in which a vessel may be safely moored. Lies in latitude 17-4 S., longitude 144-14 W.
MOUTOITI : An island near Maufi li, to which refer. MOYA ROCK, Fi : Lies on the SE. end of Eld I, in the Yasawa
Group. MUA MUA, T : An islet lying outside, to the SW. of the cluster, in the immediate vicinity of Vavau. MUKA, Fi : See Namuka-i-lau, or Eastern Namuka, an island in the eastern group of the Fijis.
MUNGA, Fi : An islet between Otovawa and Drola, to which
MUNIA, Fi : (or Munea.) A small island 4 miles E. of Vanua
Valavo, to the N. of the eastern group of the Fijian Archipelago, being 50 miles due N. of Lakemba. Rocky and steep. Highest altitude 1054 feet. Religion, Christian.
MYLORDOWITCH I, Pau : A synonym for Faaite, to which
MYOLLA, Fi : (or Meewolla, &c.) A native synomym for Kan-
davu, to which refer.